Paid Market Research Surveys

Click 4 Surveys

Click 4 Surveys is actually a website created by Daniel Cooper to give people the opportunity to earn money online by giving their own opinions and filling out surveys. Click 4 Surveys makes the entire process of taking surveys simple, easy and pleasant. After subscribing you will be able to check for surveys and the business which is offering them. The platform offers special information on how much you will make from taking the survey and how much time you will need to complete it. The quantity of income is in fact up to the subscriber. To make a real profit you will need to take a number of surveys, ranging from 20 to 30 surveys a day, that are quickly dispatched and filled. Every study will pay up between $3 and $50. This fee is greater than the main one paid and offered by most survey web sites. Continue reading...

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Customer or market research

Customer or market research can produce quantitative facts about particular markets and market segments, for example, the size of the market in terms of both unit sales and value. When these data are collected over time, it allows one to identify trends and helps to predict future sales. It can also provide information on where customers are located, their spending patterns, their earnings and their creditworthiness. It can also explain why customers prefer one brand to another and what price they are willing to pay. Market research can also provide information about market share of all the firms operating in a market or market segment.

Online market research

As electronic commerce is slowly but surely taking off, on-line testing happens to be a useful alternative or add-on to traditional market research methods. And package-goods companies are taking advantage of what the Web has to offer from speedier results to global reach so they can race to market and gain competitive advantage. Quick results are a prime benefit but longer test periods are possible with on-line testing, too since questionnaires can be posted on the Web for indefinite periods while results can be reported on a daily basis. Another benefit of on-line testing is that participants usually become more engaged than in other test methods, though they are not truly representative of the off-line consumer. Typically, the elderly and uneducated people are underrepresented among on-line consumers. This means that on-line test results may be skewed for low-tech concepts. On the contrary, the Web is the perfect place to run a concept test, a qualitative, or a quantitative study...

Case study 15 21stcentury market research

Market research is coming out of the closet. Direct marketing firms have emerged to service the new phenomenon of relationship marketing - lifestyle databases underpinning the mailings of the firms to provide a direct interface between research and practice. Data mining is the new catchword for market researchers. Using what used to be considered as secondary sources of information, the researchers analyse direct marketing company records to build up an in-depth picture of the lifestyles of millions of consumers. New ways of segmenting markets based on lifestyles and attitudes are being discovered and ways of translating market research into market action are working more quickly and effectively. Because of the speed of analysing such research, market researchers are able to offer high-quality tailored research packages to small firms which previously could not have afforded professional market research. Another area in which market research is being revolutionised is through the...

Telephone questionnaires

The types of question most appropriate to telephone surveys are brief, and require brief factual answers that the respondent can give accurately without much thought 'Do you ' or 'Don't you ', 'Have you ' or 'Haven't you ' This is because the telephone call is going to interrupt the respondent in the middle of some other activity. The difficulty of establishing rapport over the telephone also makes it unusual for a long conversation to be practicable. Some companies have managed to avoid this problem by maintaining a panel of respondents from which a sample may be drawn. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) is a service offered by a number of research agencies. It gives advantages in questionnaire presentation since the interviewer reads a question from the screen, types in the code appropriate to the respondent's answer, and the next question appears on the screen. In this way, quite complicated questionnaires using filter questions can be devised without worrying that the...

Online questionnaires

Questionnaires developed and administered online through e-mail on the Internet are becoming increasingly popular in certain markets. The dot-com sector is a major user of this type of questionnaire. However, as the Internet becomes ubiquitous other business sectors are adopting the methodology, exploiting the advantages that this mode of delivery offers. They are cheap and fast to prepare and to administer, and results may be gained very quickly. In addition, the use of hypertext mark-up language (HTML) can create links to help areas for respondents completing self-administered questionnaires, or to video or other audio visual content to support the questionnaire. This means that if respondents have questions they can click on a link that takes them to a site which contains supporting information, or send an e-mail to the researcher asking for help. Questionnaires can be delivered to potential respondents in a number of ways. They can be sent through a link from a website, as an...

Computerassisted questionnaires

Computer-assisted programs can handle long and complicated questionnaires of practically any length and can also accommodate very large samples. They can also be personalised or seem to act in an intelligent manner. In the latter respect, answers from previous questions can be inserted automatically into the text of later questions. For instance, a questionnaire about computers may ask about whether the respondent has used any particular makes recently and ask him or her to name the makes. A later portion of the questionnaire may probe into each such computer experience and the program can be structured so that the name of each computer tried is inserted automatically into the questionnaire at the right point. Another useful feature is that the replies to an open-ended question are available to an interviewer for later access, if required. Any interview temporarily terminated at the respondent's request, for instance a telephone interview, can be rescheduled for completion at a later...

Market Research and Product Development

We've already seen just how valuable search data can be for market research, product development, and audience analysis. From an organizational standpoint, determine how use of search data can effectively be integrated into existing processes. This may be as easy as simply getting departments to share data. If the advertising department is already doing keyword research for paid search campaigns, it may be able to just share its findings with product development. If you are not currently using search data, user research, market research, or other departments you may need to learn how best to do keyword research and incorporate searcher personas into existing audience analysis and market research.

Industrial focus groups

Focus groups that deal with industrial research problems are much like those covering consumer products, but with several important differences. First, the moderator must be knowledgeable in the field being discussed. Most moderators know about fast-moving consumer goods or shopping in supermarkets, but not all of them know enough about machine tools to conduct a discussion with a group of technicians and engineers. The screening of possible moderators in industrial areas must be even more thorough than for those in consumer product areas. Preparing the moderator and the moderator's guide about the industrial problem must also be very thorough. It may be advisable to have an in-house moderator lead the discussion, or at least to have one in the room to help the moderator with difficult technical points. The participants in industrial focus groups must also be carefully chosen to make sure that each can speak about the problem. Time considerations are important a group of people will...

Omnibus research surveys

Omnibus research represents a middle ground between off-the-peg research services, where the data has already been collected and the researcher simply buys what is available, and primary research, where the researcher has to collect the information personally. Omnibus research describes regular research surveys that are being undertaken with a stated frequency and a decided method, using a set number of respondents and sampling points. The fieldwork 'omnibus' is running and the client is invited to 'board the bus' by adding a few personal questions to the questionnaire. The omnibus user has the advantages of original question design, privacy of information and representativeness of sample, without having to bear all the fieldwork costs alone. The user pays only for the number of questions included and this is a very cheap form of original survey research. Omnibus research is particularly suitable for fairly robust data, e.g. the usage and purchase of products. It is less reliable for...

Changing Role Of Market Research

In the years ahead, successful research suppliers will need to develop close cooperation with their research clients. It is likely that much of the day-to-day work formerly carried out by in-house market research departments will be outsourced to specialist research agencies. This will entail agencies having to have a much better understanding of their clients' problems and the manner in which research survey data can contribute towards the solution of such problems. Researchers are not primarily data gatherers, although data gathering is essential and the work must be properly organised and controlled. The specialist skill of researchers, however, is being able to spot how research can help resolve a problem and help a firm make better decisions. It is the skill and creativity that is part of knowing how to get worthwhile information, how to help clients understand what data are telling them and what decisions they should consider making as a result. Substantial changes have occurred...

Market research objectives

Causal Research

A clothing manufacturer, Corallo, wants to know why its sales of jeans are falling at a rate of 10 a year. They have asked Abacus Data Research (ADR), a market research consultancy, to find out. focus groups ____ market research _1 causal research study consumer research in-house research market research brief pilot questionnaire questionnaire secondary research

If youre working to assess levels of customer awareness interest or satisfaction customer opinion surveys are a good

You can conduct short surveys in-person at the point of purchase, or you can collect more extensive information through questionnaires delivered via phone, mail, or e-mail. Just listen Using focus groups Focus groups, by definition, are left to the professionals. A focus group is a gathering of customers or prospective customers who share input about a product or marketing idea with a professional moderator who guides the conversation, prompts input, and manages the discussion so it isn't dominated by one person or opinion. The only reason you should hold a focus group is if

Postal or selfcompletion questionnaires

As covered in Section 6.3, when an appropriate mailing list or easy mechanism for collecting self-completed questionnaires exists, postal or self-completion questionnaires can be a useful tool for primary data collection. This is particularly true for executives working on a small budget, or in markets where response rates are likely to be good. Industrial researchers often achieve good response rates from buyers or suppliers. Mail-order companies also use this technique to good effect. Self-completion questionnaires are widely used by hotels and other service-supplying institutions. One of the features of response to postal or self-completion questionnaires is that they are more likely to come from individuals with an interest in the subject, so if this is the group whose views are required the method is particularly appropriate._ The rate of response to postal or self-completion questionnaires is influenced by the covering letter introducing and explaining the purposes of the...

Clinical focus groups

Clinical focus groups are used because a person's true motivations and feelings are subconscious. We cannot take at face value what many customers have to say and the research needs to probe beneath the level of consciousness. It is assumed SOME APPLICATIONS FOR FOCUS GROUPS Focus groups can give the client firm ideas for new products. A gap in the market may be identified and further research can then seek to identify the true size of the potential gap in the market. If several focus groups should come up with the same idea it may well be worth serious consideration, even though it may have been considered before and rejected. It may be possible to adjust costs, for example, so that profitability is more positive. Focus groups can indicate the likelihood of success with a new product. It would be possible, for example, to test the concept of a new product for the current market. You would seek answers to questions such as When sales have declined rapidly on certain products, focus...

Employing focus groups

Focus groups provide data about problems through the mechanism of group dynamics. By talking among themselves and with a moderator, a relatively small group of interested people can produce more valuable thoughts and ideas than if each participant were interviewed separately. Nothing is quite the same as what can happen when a group interested in a topic or a product sit around a table for one to two hours discussing how they feel about it. In terms of bringing out suggestions, an experienced moderator can produce a degree of interaction and cooperation that produce unanticipated ideas. Focus groups are unique they can explore customary ways of doing things or customary beliefs and possible reactions to something new. They can try to determine why such conditions and reactions exist and what can be done to change them. Focus groups can highlight attitudes, prejudices, changing ways of using products and changing ways of viewing pricing and distribution.

Telephone surveys

If the study is one requiring a broad geographic sample, national or regional, the telephone survey may be ideal. Telephone surveys can also be used as an efficient follow-up method in connection with another basic method of data collection. Telephone surveys involve a team of interviewers working from a central location, with workstations provided along with outgoing telephone lines for each. ask to speak to the desired respondent. Then the interviewer uses the computer. Each question is shown on the monitor in sequence and the interviewer reads the question exactly as it appears on screen. Since most questions designed for telephone surveys are short-answer questions, where the respondent's replies are limited to a choice of possibilities, these are also shown on the screen. All the responses go immediately into the computer for later analysis.

Focus groups

The focus group (also known as the group discussion) is a form of qualitative research. The group usually consists of between 6 and 12 respondents who discuss products, services, attitudes or other aspects of the marketing process. The discussion is led by a skilled researcher called a group moderator, who guides the discussion, following a checklist of topics. The group usually meets in an informal setting, often someone's home, and the group members are paid a small sum for attending. These discussions can take several hours to complete and are often used as a preliminary to survey research. It is also possible to conduct online focus groups via the Internet (see Section 4.14).

Market research

Within this context, market research becomes the crucial tool with which to understand the customer. Thus market research has the following goals The key aims of international market research are to provide reliable information, insight and consistency. These will change little - however, in the future it is likely that through the introduction of new technology the means by which the information is gathered, organized, analyzed and presented will change radically. For example, companies who supply electronic point of sale data to companies have an enormous wealth of information at hand. They know what consumers buy - not what they say they buy. In the future the research organization may be bypassed as the brand owner talks directly with their customers, for example, Toyota car owners can visit a website, register their car, and talk to designers and tell them what they like and dislike about their car and what they would like to see in their next car. While purists will argue about...

Online Surveys

Just as important as monitoring the Web site traffic and the number of visitors you have is knowing who your visitors are. If you know your Web site audience and their demographics, you can market your site more directly to the intended audience. One of the most efficient ways to do this is by conducting surveys. What questions you ask will be determined by what you want to know. Do try to keep surveys short and don't forget to ask a bit of background information, without getting too personal. The following survey services can help create, house, and distribute online surveys. The list is provided by Web Ad.vantage http www.zoomerang.com. Allows the easy creation of online surveys. http www.surveysite.com. Specializes in independent Web site evaluations, online focus groups, pop-up surveys and polls, and e-mail surveys. http www.infopoll.com. Offers online survey software, enabling anyone to create questionnaires and collect instant feedback.

Marketing Research A Definition

Peter Chisnall (1992)1 points out that although the term 'market research' is now largely used as a synonym for 'marketing research' there was originally a distinct difference between the scope of the activities they covered. Some confusion has been caused by the term 'market research' being rather freely used to describe the full range of activities properly covered by marketing research. Chisnall (1992) notes, however, that market or marketing research is essentially about the disciplined collection and evaluation of specific data in order to help suppliers to understand their customer needs better. Moreover, since decision making necessarily involves some element of risk, the collection and evaluation of such data should be used to reduce and control, to some degree, the parameters of risk surrounding particular marketing proposals.

How Search Has Changed Your Business

Twenty years ago, the World Wide Web as we know it today didn't exist. Ten years ago, only early technology adopters used search engines, and Google was a struggling young upstart. Now, over 50 percent of online Americans use search engines every day and over 90 percent of them use search engines every month. That's a lot of potential customers who are looking for you and a lot of market research about what those customers want. Never before have we had access to such remarkable amounts of data about potential customers. We know what they search for (and what they don't). We know how they shop and how they buy. We can even find out where they look on a page. Businesses spend such significant amounts of time and money on market research, focus groups, and usability studies, yet so many fail to augment this information with the abundance of free data available from those 113 billion searches a month. But integrating offline and online marketing is only half the story. It's just as...

Marketing and sales orientations

A marketing approach attempts to determine ways of offering superior value to the more profitable segments without damaging individual customer relationships. A marketing approach reflects an integrated approach based on research and feedback. Customer needs are first evaluated through market research, an integrated marketing effort is developed to satisfy customers so that the organization achieves its goals, especially those affecting shareholders. This is a customer orientation and contrasts very bluntly with a narrow competitor orientation based on sales in which the organization by capitalizing on the weaknesses of vulnerable competitors or by removing its own competitive weaknesses attempts to obtain high sales and long-run profits (Figure 1.3).

Who needs marketing research

The problem for many organizations has been their lack of a mechanism for detecting change in the marketplace. Markets have become more competitive and the pace of technology has accelerated change. Gordon Moore at Intel Corporation has speculated that the processing power of computers doubles every 18 months. Organizations can no longer afford to rely simply on making a good product for it to be successful in the long term. It now has to meet a real market need in a very precise way and perhaps for a shorter period than in the past. This book is about the mechanisms available to managers to make organizations more responsive to their markets. This is the province of marketing research and hence the title of this book. It is properly termed 'marketing research' rather than the more colloquial 'market research' because it is research applied not only to measuring and identifying markets and market characteristics, but also to measuring the effectiveness of marketing decision making....

Shoham and Kahles Data Source and This Studys Data Source

Shoham and Kahle's study was based on a national mail survey of 663 respondents conducted by a professional market research firm. With an effective response rate of 66.3 , the questionnaire used in their survey covered diverse questions about attitudes, activities, and interests. We obtained the data for this chapter from the 1995 DDB Needham Life Style Study. This study is conducted annually through the Market Facts' consumer mail panel. In 1995, 5,000 questionnaires were sent to the U.S. households selected and balanced for geographic region, family size, age, income, and population density. Of the questionnaires sent, 3,613 were completed and returned, for an effective response rate of 72 . The questionnaire included questions about attitudes, interests, opinions, product usage and media preferences. Only the responses related to the purpose of this study were used in the analysis.

What Successful People

Market research, which only really amounts to asking convincing questions, can give you a competitive edge because the majority of software developers still rush out, take a quick look at where the rocks are, and dive in before they've found the alligators. The time it takes to do a little careful probing is more than repaid by the increased speed and surety with which you will be able to make prudent decisions afterwards. Any research worth its salt gives you practical answers with high degrees of probability. Elementary market research can enable you to streamline your coding schedule by telling you which functions and features customers are most likely to pay for. It can help you to discover how much you are probably going to have to teach the customers before they can appreciate your program. Although there can be vast differences between what people say and what they do, market research can supply the price slot most likely to attract purchases....

Task for a Professional

In the old days, when most shops were owned by families, it was easy enough to ask customers what they wanted across the counter. Now that everything needs to be done on a much larger scale, it is easy to forget that the same down-to-earth principles apply. As Table 2-1 makes plain, you don't necessarily need to know everything about market research to do a perfectly sensible job.

Assistance From Outside Research Organisations

In recent years, there has been a trend towards using outside suppliers. This has probably occurred because of the more complex and sophisticated research techniques that have recently been developed and the fact that people in organisations do not usually have the necessary skills for these techniques. Computerisation has produced ways of finding and analysing information that could not have been dreamed of only a few years ago. While computers have been adopted almost universally, their use for marketing research has developed as a specialised field of knowledge and few firms have developed this expertise for themselves. Companies are also reducing their middle and top management staff. For financial reasons, many companies believe that an outside research firm can perform market research better and more cheaply than the companies' own personnel. Because of the wealth of information now available to clients on a continuing basis from agencies that specialise in gathering, analysing...

What Features Would You Like It to Have

If a respondent is reluctant to reply or will only respond in a form you can't understand, you can't play God and decide what they mean. You just have to strike that interview even though this increases the number of questionnaires you have to conduct. The biggest query over any questionnaire is whether respondents are telling the truth. However scrupulously you conduct your survey, some people will give you the answers they think you want to hear, or supply an answer that conceals more than it reveals. This happened spectacularly in the 1993 U.K. General Election. The Labour Party had an 8 percent lead according to all the polls. When the results came in John Major (Margaret Thatcher's successor) won by 2 percent. How come Basically, it was uncool to admit supporting Conservatives at the time. When questioned by the market researchers a large number of respondents fibbed.

Finding a Niche You Can Fill Researching Your Market

O matter what you're branding or whether you're building a new brand or revitalizing an existing brand, your effort has to start with market research, and here's why Unless your budget is limitless (and we've yet to see one that is), you can't possibly try to talk to all the people who may have some interest in what you have to offer. You have to target both your message and your market.

How Many Units Are You Likely to Sell

Reasons for a poor response to this question may by as obvious as someone has got there before you or it may be subtle. Your idea may be ahead of its time and buyers feel unable to cope. If they think there will be a lot of new things to grasp they will almost certainly stick with what they already know and have. Whatever the explanation for the negatives, you need a second opinion. Talk the situation through with your friends or colleagues. Listen particularly to those who have both IT experience and sound judgment. If you haven't any such friends, consult a market research company. Offer to buy an hour of their time to help you interpret the facts. Nothing would be worse than making the wrong decision (whether to persevere or to stop) with all the information in your hand.

Madetomeasure field research

Some research can be carried out by executives within a user organization. Exploratory interviews in industrial or trade research and postal surveys are the most commonly used do-it-yourself research methods because they are possible and practical. However, the fact that they are apparently easy to do means that, as in do-it-yourself in many other areas, a great deal of bad workmanship can result If an organization does plan to do its own marketing research then the executives concerned will need to know rather more about it than could possibly be covered in a short introductory book such as this. Suggestions for improving personal research expertise are offered in Chapter 17. Research techniques almost always commissioned from research agencies are those involving large-scale interviewing or telephone research surveys, because these require more routine time and staff than most organizations are likely to wish to handle, or are able to do, cost effectively. Group discussions and...

Gathering feedback through dialogue

Every company can benefit from knowing what its customers want, what they like about its products and services, and what they don't like. Getting that feedback can be a nightmare, though. Focus groups are costly and time consuming, and can be conducted only in areas where you can physically locate a group of appropriate people. Surveys are also time-intensive, nothing to blink at costwise, and are hard to get people to return to.

Nonresponse As An Issue In Marketing Research Effectiveness

Answers to questions posed in surveys, for example, may differ considerably between those who respond and those who do not. In busy shopping malls, those who spend time helping the researcher fill in questionnaires may have very different ideas and concerns to those who walk rapidly by and refuse to cooperate. Moreover, in the case of business-to-business research, the non-respondent may be an organisation of major significance whose exclusion results in the research having little meaning. While training of interviewers, extra incentives and even patience can sometimes overcome potential non-response, pressure of time, apathy, scepticism and greater feelings of rights to privacy all contribute to the potential problems posed by non-response.

Internet Business Ideas

There are many research studies and statistics that support this statement. A study conducted by the Ipsos Reid market research firm in February 2003 concludes that in the year 1999 only 28 of worldwide Internet users purchased a product or service online, whereas this figure rose to 62 in the year 2002 and about 70 in the year 2005. And these numbers continue to climb. Nielsen NetRatings supports this finding with its own research.

Step 2 Find out what they want

This market research can easily be done for free. The internet offers facilities online where you can talk to experts and customers. These are forums, discussion groups, chat rooms, mailing lists and newsgroups. After you have done this you have to join those groups. Otherwise include them in your list of favorites. Spend some time with a few of these groups every day. This kind of market research will help you identify what exactly is needed by the customer.

Secondary desk research 421 Introduction

Secondary data is relatively quick and cheap to obtain. The growth of online services has made the process of accessing secondary data at home and overseas much faster. Once obtained, a regular series of updating information can usually be acquired from the same source. At best, secondary data may provide the complete answer to a problem. At worst, it will save the organization time and money when it comes to carrying out a piece of original field research. Secondary data can define the scope or direction of a field research survey and indicate the type and range of information that may be available. It will suggest possible methods for carrying out field research. If past research surveys are found to be too out of date for the information to be of current relevance, they may at least provide a basis for comparison with a new survey replicating the method. This will give the added insight of market change data to an original piece of research. There are several possible sources of...

Research and Analysis

We learned earlier that a key component of the five Ps of marketing is market research and analysis. Before one can effectively design and market an event, there is the need to determine the desires, expectations, and anticipations of the audience to whom that marketing will be directed. The event may be an original production or a historic, traditional annual meeting but research must be ongoing.

Area Market Potential

To use the SIC, the lathe manufacturer must first determine the four-digit SIC codes that represent products whose manufacturers are likely to require lathe machines. For example, lathes will be used by manufacturers in SIC number 2511 (wood household furniture), number 2521 (wood office furniture), and so on. To get a full picture of all four-digit SIC industries that might use lathes, the company can use three methods (1) It can determine past customers' SIC codes (2) it can go through the SIC manual and check off all the four-digit industries that, in its judgment, would have an interest in lathes (3) it can mail questionnaires to a wide range of companies inquiring about their interest in wood lathes.

Acquiring the required information

The research plan must specify exactly how the study is to be done - postal questionnaire, personal interview, focus groups or other method - and justify why the method has been chosen. A study may require the use of several types of research method. Focus groups, for example, are often followed by quantitative studies. The plan should indicate why the indicated approach is necessary. It should also state that the specified methods might have to be altered as the study progresses to meet changing needs.

Case study 23 why researchers are so jittery

With a general election looming, Britain's market research wizards are on tenterhooks. The latest issue of the UK's Market Research Society magazine is titled 1997 Year of Decision for MR, and the lead article starts by asking whether 1997 will be a year of 'further embarrassment'. The second article is titled 'Laying the ghost of the nightmare of '92', a reference to the way UK opinion polls were all at sea with their predictions of the 1992 UK election result. Inevitably, the entire market research business will be seen as guilty by association and market research is now pretty big business. With 7bn in turnover and steady, compound growth of 8-10 a year, the UK research business has done extremely well of late. Moreover, the Association of Market Survey Organisations (Amso) forecasts growth of 15-20 this year. Research is a nice little export earner, too. As with other marketing activities, Britain is a world leader. According to Amso, about 20 of UK market research turnover comes...

Consumer classification systems

World War and is still the major classification system used today. The reason for its widespread use is that members of each social group or class show broadly similar patterns of behaviour, consumption, lifestyle, attitudes and media use in many situations. This can help to explain differences in use of, or response to, all kinds of products and services, and therefore gives a basis for comparison. It is also relatively easy to apply in research surveys and so is used in most surveys and marketing activity. However, the very fact that it is a prewar classification system highlights its current social grading deficiencies. Although the process of social change is slow (hence the system still has broad relevance in many situations), since the Second World War there has been considerable social change resulting in more social diversity. For many situations the system of social grading is no longer relevant and so cannot help in explaining or understanding consumer behaviour. The...

Why study the fashion buyer

Everyone interested in fashion marketing brings a particular quality to their studies, i.e. their experiences as a fashion consumer. That experience is a mixed blessing. The benefits are that concepts from consumer behaviour can be understood and readily applied to one's own clothing purchases. The main drawback is the temptation to generalize and assume that all other fashion consumers behave as we do. The unfortunate fact is that the study of fashion marketing will probably change buying behaviour and make the expert fashion marketer atypical. Greater knowledge of products and promotional processes coupled with enthusiasm for fashion mean that there is a dislocation from typical consumers. Interestingly, many serious market research companies exclude marketing personnel as survey respondents because of their tendency to be atypical.

Stage 1 Defining the research required

Before any research programme can be undertaken, its scope and objectives must be defined. Too often, research surveys are undertaken with insufficient clarification of their objectives, with the result that the findings are found to be too vague, too narrow or entirely inappropriate. The responsibility for defining the research objectives lies mainly with the manager who initiates the research and wishes to apply its results in decision making. A non-specialist manager may know very little about research, but is likely to be the only person with a clear idea of why the research is needed and how the findings will be used. If this is not communicated adequately to the researcher, the research programme that follows may be entirely misdirected.

Other general sources

This is a short-sighted and damaging decision. The GHS is a prime source of continuous survey data since 1971. Its value lies in an unbroken series embracing income, housing, family composition, health, employment status, education, disability, use of social services, informal care and much else. It provides a window into the growing world of self-employment, the effects of widening inequality and the growth and impact of lone parenthood, while providing measures of social integration and exclusion. It is used in government, in academia and in market research.

Deciding the data requirement

A manufacturer of industrial contract materials produced a new flooring material. The success of the product was very important to the organization because markets for most of their product ranges were in decline. Management had high hopes for the new product, which produced a more durable floor with a better finish than existing materials, although it was more expensive. Laying the flooring required a completely different technique to that of traditional floorings, but it was not a complicated process. The manufacturer felt that an industrial market research survey to predict demand for the new material would be too expensive, but some 'market research' was required in view of the importance of the new product launch to the company as a whole. As a result, six good customers for the company's products were given samples of the new material and asked to try it out. Some time later, one of the company executives called on the customers and asked how they rated the material. The...

Preparing the marketing plan

Organizations which respond only to pressures of the short term 'simply delude themselves into believing that consumer surveys, techniques and product portfolio procedures automatically confer a marketing orientation on their adopters' (Anderson 1982, p. 23). The role of marketing is to manage the organization's customer relationships by

Converting data into knowledge

Good decisions are based on knowledge that derives from information and information, as seen above, is based on data. Data refers to raw, unsorted unstructured sets of numbers and observations. These data are obtained from within the organization, through market observations and from market research, which contribute to the body of theoretical and conceptual marketing knowledge and organizations use this knowledge in designing marketing research studies to collect data. Data, especially that available from published sources, is abundant and relatively cheap. They are considered to be 'noisy', unorganized and frequently irrelevant. There are many concerns with databases available to the organization. For the present it is sufficient to refer to the matter of accuracy and relevance of data. Published data are generally not well organized and sometimes irrelevant and available only sporadically.

Anaging The Development Process Development To Commercialization

The job of translating target customer requirements into a working prototype is helped by a set of methods known as quality function deployment (QFD). The methodology takes the list of desired customer attributes (CAs) generated by market research and turns them into a list of engineering attributes (EAs) that the engineers can use. For example, customers of a proposed truck may want a certain acceleration rate (CA). Engineers can turn this into the required horsepower and other engineering equivalents (EAs). The methodology permits measuring the trade-offs and costs of providing the customer requirements. A major contribution of QFD is that it improves communication between marketers, engineers, and the manufacturing people.22 G At Gillette, 200 volunteers from various departments come to work unshaven each day, troop to the second floor of the company's South Boston manufacturing and research plant, and enter small booths with a sink and mirror. There they take instructions from...

Case study 34 powerup electricity plc

For the French company, the UK was an unknown territory. Having seen some of the mistakes made by French utility companies during the privatisation of water supplies in Britain, the parent company's management were nervous about making the same errors, so they decided to carry out a major market research exercise in order to ascertain the likely acceptability of PowerUp plc. The company's target market was home owners with family incomes in excess of 25,000 a year an analysis of the French utility company's own records showed that these households (or at least, their French equivalents) had the lowest rate of default on credit, were relatively large consumers of electricity and were usually prompt payers. PowerUp needed to identify these customers, establish ways of reaching them and (more importantly) find out what would attract them to switch electricity suppliers.

To zine or not to zine

Because zines are everywhere these days, consultants may think it's mandatory to have one. Not true. Zines are not for everybody. Producing a zine takes talent and resources that may be better spent on other marketing activities, such as updating your Web site, delivering speeches, or conducting surveys.

Internet and email research

Self-completion questionnaires have been taken a step further by the introduction of direct computer interviewing via the Internet or associated e-mail systems. Here the respondent works directly with the computer, following instructions presented on the screen. This technique has also been transferred to telephone research, where responses generated via the telephone keypad initiate the next phase of the interview. The questions are prerecorded. The growth of wireless and cable networks, and applications such as interactive television and mobile telephony on Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) or third-generation mobile devices, means that the potential for development in this area is large. However, the impersonal nature of the process means that some respondents find this interview method intimidating, or simply beyond their level of technological know-how. In the 2002 Market Research Society (MRS) Research Buyer's Guide 60 organizations had the capability of offering...

Key elements in devising a sampling plan

Surveys attempt to find things out about a population. For marketing research purposes populations may consist of people or firms. A population for a survey comprises all the persons or companies to which you would like to direct questions. It would be highly advantageous to contact all members of a population and ask them to answer all the questions we want to put. If this could be done we could produce very accurate results. However, only seldom is it possible to contact or gain a response from all the members of a population. The exception is in the case of industrial market research where it may be possible to contact all the firms that make up a particular population because the population may be very small (see Figure 4.1).

Concept tests and prototype tests

Focus groups are used very often in marketing research because they have proved to be very effective in generating hypotheses that can be tested further quantitatively, generating information for structuring consumer questionnaires, providing background information on a product category, and securing impressions on new product concepts. Concept tests can also occur in creative workshops according to, for example, the method of Turtlebay Institute, a New York-based market research company. In this case, customers are asked to fill out long ques-tionnaires the information is not as valuable as that of a focus group, but it is better organized and therefore easier to analyze. The development of concept tests is based upon classic survey techniques that are used to measure a customer's reactions to global concepts and their characteristics, but it is also based upon more sophisticated methods such as multidimensional scaling analysis and conjoint analysis or tradeoff analysis. The...

Ziba Product Research Process

The foundation for ZIBA's product development process is market research. That research seeks to understand the brand itself, the competition, and market trends. But most important, ZIBA's research efforts center on getting to know the customer. It has taken a novel approach to market research by utilizing the likes of social anthropologists and cultural ethnographers to get to the heart of what makes consumers tick. Their efforts often

General population omnibus surveys

Pegram Walters, International Research and Consulting, 242-233 St. John Street, London EC1V 2PG (Tel 020 7689 5000, Fax 020 7689 5600). Four times a year, questionnaires are sent out to between 1000 and 10,000 households. National Superbus is also quarterly and can screen up to 50,000 panel households to identify users of low-incidence products and services.

Using a quantitative analysis

Mail surveys consumer surveys and 1 in business questionnaires) answer questionnaires Besides, one must note that frequently incumbent companies fall short of realizing the potential effect of a new radical technology in their industry and consider visions of it as overhyped. Since the potential customers for this technology are usually not well identified, market research may infer that the potential for revenue is small and that the development of such a market will be too expensive. For instance, when early xerography technology was presented to IBM, senior management declined the offer, because their analysis concluded that demand for copiers was too low. In the 1980s, DEC made the same error in dismissing the potential of PCs as a growing computer solution for firms preferring to stick with their policy of offering more traditional minicomputers.

How is the sample selected

Data collected from the sample are referred to as 'statistics' and these sample statistics are used to estimate the 'population parameter'. That is, results obtained from a sample are used to calculate the results that would have been obtained from the underlying population had a census been used. The degree to which it is possible to use sample statistics to estimate population parameters with an acceptable degree of accuracy depends on the sampling procedures used and on the size of the sample. The three main methods used in selecting samples are called random sampling, quota sampling and judgement sampling. The method whose statistical validity forms the foundation for the whole practice of survey research is random sampling, and for this reason it is the best known and most commonly described method of sampling. However, in practice, quota sampling has been found to give perfectly acceptable results for commercial purposes and at a cheaper cost than random sampling. Quota sampling...

Inputs to the Creative Process Verification Revision

The verification and revision stage of the creative process evaluates ideas generated during the illumination stage, rejects inappropriate ones, refines and polishes those that remain, and gives them final expression. Techniques used at this stage include directed focus groups to evaluate creative concepts, ideas, or themes message communication studies portfolio tests and evaluation measures such as viewer reaction profiles.

Telephone interviewing

There are disadvantages to this method of data collection. It is difficult to establish a rapport with the respondent by telephone, which is partly why this method is not successful for the researching of personal or embarrassing topics. Many respondents are fearful of 'sugging', selling under the guise of marketing research, and expect the interviewer to try to sell them double glazing and the like. With a disembodied voice it is also easier for a respondent to refuse or end an interview prematurely. The telephone interview demands the use of very structured, precoded questionnaires that may be completed quickly without having to rely on examples of supporting material. An ideal telephone interview will last no longer than 15 minutes, on average.

Exploratory research design

Exploratory Descriptive Causal

This chapter will start with defining research design, classifying various designs and explaining the difference between exploratory and conclusive research designs by comparing and contrasting the basic research designs exploratory, descriptive and causal. It will explain how the problem definition is linked with the selection of research design and will then explore the exploratory research design in detail. It will provide classification of exploratory research design and discuss important research techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups and projective techniques. Market research report Independent market research firms

Obtaining the right respondent

When carrying out consumer telephone surveys, it is essential to make use of a recording form to ensure that the prescribed steps are properly carried out. This ensures that the consumer telephone sample is carried out as planned. The same kind of attention is required with a sample of business respondents. In a telephone survey where executives are the target sample, it is often difficult to get past the secretary or the assistant to the executive. A personal visit to the office often presents the same problem. Making a telephone call or sending a letter ahead of time, to see if a specific time can be set for that telephone call or personal visit, can help to resolve the problem. The nature of the questioning can be outlined. This not only gives the secretary a chance to clear it with the boss, but gives the executive time to obtain materials and documents ready for the interview. However, advance notice may also cause problems. It is often difficult for the potential respondent to...

Market Segmentation Procedure

The researcher conducts exploratory interviews and focus groups to gain insight into customer motivations, attitudes, and behavior. Then the researcher prepares a questionnaire and collects data on attributes and their importance ratings, brand awareness and brand ratings, product-usage patterns, attitudes toward the product category, and respondents' demographics, geographics, psychographics, and mediagraphics.

Discussion And Directions For Future Research

We found that the effects for familiar endorsers seem to be more stable across different exposure levels than the effects for unfamiliar endorsers. In addition, we saw evidence that for male endorsers, familiar celebrities were often more effective than unfamiliar celebrities. In contrast, for female endorsers, the opposite seemed to hold. In our focus groups, participants indicated that they thought that they would be more likely to be swayed by known than unknown athletes because they would trust the known athlete's motives more than the unknown one. In future research, we will continue to investigate the differences between familiar and unfamiliar endorsers. From our focus groups emerged another important variable that we plan to incorporate into future research the importance between the match of the

Introduction to marketing research Scientific research approach and Problem definition

Research Problem Definition

Marketing research is a critical part of such marketing decision making it helps in improving management decision making by providing relevant, accurate, and timely information. Every decision poses unique needs for information, and relevant strategies can be developed based on the information gathered through marketing research in action. Too often, marketing research is considered narrowly as the gathering and analyzing of data for someone else to use. However, firms can actually achieve and sustain a competitive advantage through the creative use of market information generated by marketing research. Hence, marketing research is defined as information input to decisions, not simply the evaluation of decisions that have been made. Market research alone, however, does not guarantee success the intelligent use of market research is the key to business achievement. A competitive edge is more the result of how information is used than of who does or does not have the information.

Case study 44 student research projects

The students carried out the necessary secondary research, then designed their own primary research programmes. Most used questionnaire-based surveys, a few used focus groups, and a small number used depth interviews, observation, experimentation or other techniques. The students were left to their own devices somewhat the idea was to allow them to learn from their mistakes and find out for themselves what the pitfalls of market research are. In most cases, students managed to produce fairly good results, but quite obviously some of them had serious difficulties. The questionnaire surveys turned out to be the ones that caused the most difficulty apart from the problems of designing the questionnaire, many of the students had made basic sampling errors. Here are some examples, taken from the students' written-up assignments 'The main problem we had with the interviews was that most people were too busy to stop and talk to us. Eventually, we managed to complete 70 useable...

The stickiness factor

Typically, this refers to how 'glued' we are to a medium such as a TV channel or a web site, but in this context it refers to attachment to the characteristics and attributes of a product or a brand. Gladwell stresses the importance of testing and market research to make the product effective. Marsden suggests that there are key cross-category attributes which are key drivers for product success and he commends the work of Morris and Martin (2000) which summarises these attributes as

Questions for discussion

International Monetary Fund (1997), World Economic Outlook, IMF World Economic and Financial Surveys, Washington, DC. International Monetary Fund (1999), World Economic Outlook, IMF World Economic and Financial Surveys, Washington, DC. international Monetary Fund (2000), World Economic Outlook, IMF World Economic and Financial Surveys, Washington, DC.

Low cost per response

The costs of a postal survey are low. However, it is assumed that the user is an expert in postal surveys and understands how to get a high rate of return. On this assumption, the costs per return are low compared with most other survey methods. It is the going-in cost that is high once the basic costs have been paid,

Figure 51 Macro tasks for commercialization

If the team lacks the required strategic portfolio work to initiate its commercialization project, however, the team must step back and gather the prerequisite information. For example, you should develop a market opportunity assessment that defines targeted segments to assess attractiveness. Then compare that to an internal assessment to determine strategic fit and organizational capabilities. A financial risk-versus-return analysis gives the gatekeepers the critical information to help make investment decisions. The goal is to enter a commercialization project with enough market research to inform a go no go decision before more investments are made in activities such as gathering VOC data.

Walters 1997 Global Strategy Segmentation Journal Marketing

McKie, A. (1996), International research in a relative world, Journal of the Market Research Society, 38 (1), pp. 7-12. Moseley, D. (1996), Information needs for market entry, Journal of the Market Research Society, 38 (1), pp. 13-18. Pawle, J. (1999), Mining the international consumer, Journal of the Market Research Society, 41 (1), pp. 19-32. Ueltzhoffer, J. and Ascheberg, C. (1999), Transnational consumer cultures and social milieus, Journal of the Market Research Society, 41 (1), pp. 47-59. In addition the following journal has published a relevant special issue Journal of the Market Research Society (1999), Special Issue Research on the Internet, 41 (4).

Allowing for method of analysis

When preparing a questionnaire, a great deal of time and money at the analysis stage can be saved. One of the major ways of doing this is to use precoded questions, as mentioned in Section 8.6.1 and illustrated in Figure 8.2. Not only the question, but also a list of responses appears on the questionnaire. Code numbers for each response appear in the far righthand column of the questionnaire, and the interviewer simply rings the relevant response. These ringed codes can be entered into the computer directly from the questionnaire. This saves the intervening stage of coding original responses when the questionnaires are returned. By precoding responses, and deciding beforehand how many codes will be allotted to open-ended questions, the whole questionnaire can be laid out in such a way that as much direct input as possible is facilitated. Computer-assisted interviewing either by telephone (CATI), on the World Wide Web (CAWI) or in person (CAPI) clearly facilitates this process further....

Why does presentation matter

The physical appearance of the questionnaire affects its likelihood of securing a response, and this is particularly so for self-completion questionnaires. Ease of use and analysis are dependent on good questionnaire layout. The questionnaire should be laid out using adequate space and reasonable quality paper. If it looks too 'amateurish' the respondent is less likely to co-operate. If the questionnaire looks as though its perpetrators attach little importance to it, then why should respondents give up their time

Developing Market Segments

Quantitative research identifies the important dimensions describing the market. Data are gathered by mail or personal interviews from enough customers to allow analysis. The sample size will depend upon the level of accuracy needed, the limits of the statistical techniques to be used and the need for sufficient information on each segment. The usual minimum is 100 interviews per segment if, therefore, there are three or four unequal segments, several hundred completed questionnaires will do. These are used to produce a structured questionnaire measuring

What does the organization need research for

Being able to define precisely what marketing research can and should be doing for the organization is the first step in achieving it. One way of doing this is to reflect on the organization as a whole and decide what are its most pressing problems. The answers below were given by delegates to the Chartered Institute of Marketing's introductory course on market research From a dot-com business 'We have never done market research and have no way of evaluating the performance of our site in the market as a whole. Our cash is running out. We need to return to our backers with a solid business plan. We need research to establish our market size and share and the potential in our customer base. What customers should we be attracting and what products will they require and how can we generate revenue from our site '

Advertising Agencies Find Ways to Build Stronger Brands

Advertising agencies often conduct research studies for their clients, using techniques such as surveys, focus groups, and ethnographic studies to help them better understand their customers and determine the best way to communicate with them. However, in recent years a number of agencies have been conducting branding research and developing proprietary models to help better identify clients' customers and determine how they connect to their brands. Qualitative Research Input Many agencies, particularly larger ones with strong research departments, have their own research programs and specific techniques they use to assist in the development of creative strategy and provide input to the creative process. In addition to the various quantitative research studies, qualitative research techniques such as in-depth interviews or focus groups can provide the creative team with valuable insight at the early stages of the creative process. Focus groups are a research method whereby consumers...

Case study 42 jeromes department store

In the last 12 months the store has experienced a slowing down of sales of clothes. Management felt that perhaps this was because it was not really very fashion conscious in what it had to offer. As a result a decision was taken to have a market research study conducted to ascertain whether the store should stock more designer clothing in the men's, women's and children's departments.

Magazines Seek the Most Elusive Readers of All Young Males

Teenagers are one of the fastest-growing market segments in America. There are nearly 31 million teenagers in the United States, and according to Teenage Research Unlimited (TRU), a market research firm that specializes in teens,they spend more than 155 billion a year. While their numbers and purchasing power make them a very attractive segment for marketers, teens are very difficult to reach particularly through magazines. Teenagers spend a lot more time listening to radio, watching TV, and surfing the Internet than reading magazines. And while teenagers in general are an elusive segment for advertisers, young males are a particularly difficult audience to capture.

Case study 54 opinion polling faces new scrutiny

He told the Market Research Society conference in Birmingham that the election would provide an opportunity to assess the relative merits of telephone and face-to-face polling and of sampling on a random basis or by setting certain quotas for the types of people to be questioned.

Velocity of new product development

Quelch and Klein (1996) note that the Internet can also be used to accelerate new product development since different product options can be tested online more rapidly as part of market research. Companies can use their own panels of consumers to test opinion more rapidly and often at lower costs than for traditional market research. In Chapter 1, Figure 1.7, we saw how the Dubit Informer is used by brands to research the opinions of the youth market.

Interpreting and recording responses

In fully structured interviews the role of the interviewer in interpreting and recording responses is limited to doing so accurately. However, in open-ended and qualitative interviews the interviewer has an important role to play in correct interpretation and accurate comprehensive recording of responses. In depth interviews and group discussion or focus groups it is usual for a tape recorder to be employed to record responses, but when open-ended questions are used in questionnaires it is more usual for the interviewer to be required to write down exactly what the respondent says. If the respondent speaks fully and quickly this can prove a practical difficulty for the interviewer which may be overcome by editing responses. This may lose some of the quality and detail of information that the researcher would like to acquire. This is one of the reasons why open-ended questions often do not work well when used in fully structured quantitative research surveys. To help overcome this,...

Overview of Connected Marketing

In Part One Connected Marketing Practice, Paul Marsden, a market researcher at the London School of Economics, kicks off with a chapter on seed marketing - pre-launch sampling initiatives with opinion leaders, conducted in the name of market research. The chapter explains how to set up and run effective seeding trials, and uses case studies from Procter & Gamble, Pepsi, 3M, Google and Microsoft to show how seeding trials with opinion leading consumers can boost sales by up to 30 . By triggering a powerful psychological mechanism called the Hawthorne Effect that transforms trial participants into loyal adopters and vocal word of mouth advocates, Marsden argues that seeding trials are a scientific, proven and scalable solution for launch optimization.

Who are the interviewers

In the UK the market research industry depends mainly on freelance interviewers. Thus, the interviewers like to retain the freedom of when they will work and when they will not. For this reason most agencies need to have a much higher number of interviewers on their books than they will expect to use at any one time, since some of the interviewers will want to work at a particular time and others will not. Inevitably, there is some degree of lack of control in this type of situation where the interviewers do not see themselves as the employees of the company for which they work and indeed they will usually work for more than one research company. The typical characteristics used for selection of interviewers are as follows.

Business intelligence the basics

Before the emergence of the Web, business intelligence was, primarily, a private effort for corporations whose internal departments, such as customer service, manually tracked incoming information or captured it via technologies (for example, automated call logs). On the consumer side that effort was, in many ways, all about companies talking to themselves. They may have collected a small amount of objective customer data from focus groups, phone interviews, or printed surveys, but most information took the form of in-house statistics or inbound communications such as sales numbers and customer complaints.

Kbf Marketing Research

Chapter 6 introduced interviews as the most versatile and widely used method of primary data collection. The device used by interviewers for delivering questions to respondents and recording their answers is a questionnaire. This chapter considers the use, design and content of questionnaires. Questionnaires are also used in telephone research and, without interviewers, in postal or self-completion research. They are also used in online research. These questionnaires may or may not be supported by interviewers, depending on the approach. Some guidelines for questionnaire construction are given, but in large-scale quantitative survey research questionnaires are usually written by research specialists and a framework for vetting questionnaires is suggested at the end of this chapter.

The Interviewer Quality Control Scheme

As part of its concern about instituting and maintaining good-quality fieldwork, the Market Research Society (MRS) operates an IQCS and in 2002, 84 companies were members of the scheme. The scheme covers the following types of fieldwork consumer, social and qualitative research, consumer and retail panels and audits, hall tests and telephone research. In each case the scheme lays down minimum standards for recruitment, office procedures, supervision, training, quality control (IQCS standards are in line with BS 5750) and survey administration. Each member company is visited annually by an independent inspector and required to produce documentation and other evidence that it conforms to or exceeds the minimum standards. Inspection can be made with a minimum of 24 hours' notice. If accepted as a member of the scheme, the company is shown in the MRS listing of organizations, and if providing market research services, in the Research Buyer's Guide. Members of the IQCS are also listed in...

Undifferentiated Marketing

Broad Undifferentiated Marketing

Undifferendated marketing provides cost economies. The narrow product line keeps down production, inventory and transportation costs. The undifferen-tiated advertising programme keeps down advertising costs. The absence of segment marketing research and planning lowers the costs of market research and product management.

Thematic apperception

The original clinical TAT used 20 standard cards, but when used in market research it is more usual for fewer pictures to be used, and for them to relate to the specific topic under investigation. In a picture interpretation test used by a public library, a picture was shown of an individual going into a library. Both users and non-users of libraries were asked to describe the events that had led up to that individual going to the library, what would happen while in the library and what would happen next. A comparison of responses revealed differences in attitude among library users and non-users, and suggested ways in which non-

Briefing the interviewers

In most routine consumer surveys the interviewers are unlikely to be given a personal briefing. A good explanatory written brief must therefore be developed to be sent to the interviewers with the questionnaires. This may be followed up by a telephone briefing from the area supervisor. In complex or unusual consumer surveys it may be necessary to hold interviewer briefing meetings, and these will have to be paid for to cover the interviewers' time.

The Value of Benefits Conferred on the User

Fairly obviously, the more potential users there are, the easier it is to amortize the gear-up cost and the rosier your prospects of profit. The qualitative question, however, needs interpretation. Consider how potential buyers might justify your program. For example, if your product is designed to enable intellectual property lawyers to accelerate searches, draft patents, and check documents, your market research should tell you how much time it is likely to save them. Suppose respondents put

Asking the questions yourself

In smaller companies, industrial companies and companies that have not used research previously, there is a strong temptation on the part of the newly appointed and usually inexperienced research executive to carry out his or her own research programme. For large-scale research surveys or for group discussion or focus groups this is unlikely to be viable in the first case because of the time and expense involved in using one's own time on a routine and repetitive task, and in the second case because the executive is unlikely to have the appropriate skills for the method to work to its best advantage. However, for industrial and trade interviewing when only 20 or 30 depth interviews may be required for an exploratory survey it could well be feasible for the manager to carry these out personally. Indeed, there may be good commercial and technical reasons for doing so for a small project, with no necessity for confidentiality. A desk research exercise followed by 15-20 personal...

Product market testing

It will also be necessary to carry out quantitative research through consumer surveys or interviews with buyers in industrial markets depending on the nature of the new product. At this stage the company attempts to measure the extent to which potential customers are interested in the product, how they assess it compared to competing products, the features they like and dislike, the extent to which they are likely to purchase and the price they would expect to pay. Other aspects of the marketing mix will also be researched as the product moves through the development process, e.g. packaging, advertising copy and merchandising.

The IDIC approach to relationship building

This refers to dynamic personalisation or mass customisation of content or e-mails according to the segmentation achieved at the acquisition stage. This stage also involves further market research to find out if products can be further tailored to meet customers' needs.

Role of product design

Many organizations realize that, while they can manufacture reliable products, they fail to get products right the first time. Increasingly these organizations understand that they do not adequately take customer needs and preferences into account, and hence rely very little on market research, one of the unwelcome consequences of short-term financial pressures. New products that fall short of customer requirements, however, have to be redesigned which is costly both in terms of resources and the market opportunity costs. Quality function management demonstrates how design considerations can be used to eliminate the need to redesign faulty products and produce competitive products the first time.

Analysis of quantitative data

From the discussion in Chapter 5 it will be clear that quantitative data is typically produced using a questionnaire that is either interviewer administered or designed for self-completion by the respondent. In either case, the end result will be a large number (often 500 or more) of completed questionnaires containing both precoded and open-ended answers. To combine all the answers and thus make a meaningful summary of responses, there are several stages in the analysis process data preparation, data processing, computer and statistical analysis and testing. These are discussed in the following subsections.

ACORN categoriesHouseholds

ACORN has been used by local authorities to isolate areas of deprivation and by marketing firms seeking to identify areas of greatest demand for their products and services. Major retailers, banks and building societies use the service for site analysis and the mix of products appropriate to each branch. It is also used to target local advertising, posters, leaflet distribution and direct mail. Researchers can also use the system to select representative samples for questionnaire surveys.

Stratified random sampling

The ABCDE classification conceived by Market Research Services Ltd has been the system most frequently used as a method of social classification for marketing purposes. Its failure to capture the complexity of class differences has led to new systems such as SAGACITY and ACORN.

Online secondary data sources

It is also possible to gain access to a whole range of market reports and articles online. Not all of these reports are free, which may limit access for some researchers. A useful source for market research information is www.marketresearch.com which offers more than 110 000 market research reports from over 550 publishers. Other online sources include

Traps in new product development

Competitive delusion also arises from corporate pride. On occasion a new product about to be launched is tipped in the trade press to be a loser and market research may have already indicated as much to the company but for reasons of corporate pride the product is launched when it should have been dropped. The most fundamental trap in new product development arises due to weak marketing analysis and incorrect marketing strategy. Weak marketing in the organization is often the reason why they fall into the traps listed above. In some cases market research is inadequate and sales projections are overly optimistic. In other cases a marketing strategy of aggressive entry level pricing may achieve initially high sales but at the cost of low profits. In general, such organizations do not have adequate marketing know-how or distribution capabilities for the product or fail to implement them properly. Sometimes organizations and even entire industries misjudge trends among customers or...

Understanding Your Product

During the market research phase listen to what people are saying they really want. During the pre-release, beta testing period ask people openly if they can think of any other users for your product. Have brainstorming sessions with your development marketing team and see what you come up with. Before you can market your product you have to understand all its options. Options give you choices. You need to know these at the outset so you can prioritize them. There's no point in spending your entire marketing budget on election prediction software whose peak demand is once every four years only to find out that it's also an invaluable everyday statistical marketing tool for market research, advertising agencies, and brand corporations. Your product could be significantly more valuable than you believe it to be. Consumers often see a product differently from its creators. They will have worked out how they can use it and are prepared to pay for it. When you know this, you begin to...

Syndicated research services

In practice nowadays, most syndicated research services are owned by the research companies that run them. An association of users of a service may meet to ensure that user interests are expressed in the method of collection and presentation of the data. Most syndicated research surveys are continuous panels and the advantages of these as a method of data collection are discussed in Chapter 6. (Where this is not the method used, then this is indicated for the services listed below.)

Online Survey Champion

Online Survey Champion

There are people all over the world trying to find ways to make money online. From stay at home moms looking to make a few extra dollars to college students and entrepreneurs, the allure of making your own hours and working from home or from the local coffee shop is very appealing.

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