The element of the marketing mix that involves the methods and procedures companies use to achieve all marketing functions.
Physical evidence variable
The element of the marketing mix that involves the tangible expression of a product and how it is purchased and used.
This case about online music subscription service Napster illustrates how different elements of the mix can be varied online. It also highlights success factors for developing an online marketing strategy since Napster's proposition, objectives, competitors and risk factors are all reviewed.
The Napster brand has had a varied history. Its initial incarnation was as the first widely used service for 'free' peer-to-peer (P2P) music sharing. The record companies mounted a legal challenge to Napster due to lost revenues on music sales which eventually forced it to close. But the Napster brand was purchased and its second incarnation offers a legal music download service in direct competition with Apple's iTunes.
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