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Page impression One page impression occurs when a member of the audience views a web page. (See also Ad impression and Reach.) PageRank A scale between 0 to 10 used by Google to assess the importance of web sites according to the number of inbound links or backlinks.

Page request The process of a user selecting a hyperlink or typing in a uniform resource locator (URL) to retrieve information on a specific web page. Equivalent to page impression. Page view See Page impression.

Pay-per-click (PPC) search marketing Refers to when a company pays for text ads to be displayed on the search engine results pages when a specific keyphrase is entered by the search users. It is so called since the marketer pays for each time the hypertext link in the ad is clicked on.

People variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the delivery of service to customers during interactions with those customers. Perfect market An efficient market where there are an infinite number of suppliers and buyers and complete price transparency.

Performance drivers Critical success factors that determine whether business and marketing objectives are achieved.

Performance management system A process used to evaluate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation and its processes.

Performance measurement system The process by which metrics are defined, collected, disseminated and actioned.

Performance metrics Measures that are used to evaluate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes.

Performance of web site Performance or quality of service is dependent on its availability and speed of access.

Permission marketing Customers agree (opt-in) to be involved in an organisation's marketing activities, usually as a result of an incentive. Persistent cookies Cookies that remain on the computer after a visitor session has ended. Used to recognise returning visitors.

Personal data Any information about an individual stored by companies concerning their customers or employees.

Personalisation Web-based personalisation involves delivering customised content for the individual through web pages, e-mail or push technology.

Personas A thumbnail summary of the characteristics, needs, motivations and environment of typical web site users.

Persuasion marketing Using design elements such as layout, copy and typography together with promotional messages to encourage site users to follow particular paths and specific actions rather than giving them complete choice in their navigation.

Phishing Obtaining personal details online through sites and e-mails masquerading as legitimate businesses.

Phone-me A callback facility available on the web site for a company to contact a customer by phone at a later time, as specified by the customer. Physical evidence variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the tangible expression of a product and how it is purchased and used.

Pixel The small dots on a computer screen that are used to represent images and text. Short for 'picture element'. Used to indicate the size of banner advertisements.

Place The element of the marketing mix that involves distributing products to customers in line with demand and minimising cost of inventory, transport and storage.

Plug-in A program that must be downloaded to view particular content such as an animation.

Podcasts Individuals and organisations post online media (audio and video) which can be viewed in the appropriate players (including the iPod which first sparked the growth in this technique). Portal A web site that acts as a gateway to information and services available on the Internet by providing search engines, directories and other services such as personalised news or free e-mail.

Portfolio analysis Evaluation of value of current ecommerce services or applications.

Positioning Customers' perception of the product offer relative to those of competitors.

Prescriptive strategy The three core areas of strategic analysis, strategic development and strategy implementation are linked together sequentially.

Price elasticity of demand Measure of consumer behaviour that indicates the change in demand for a product or service in response to changes in price.

Price transparency Customer knowledge about pricing increases due to increased availability of pricing information.

Price variable The element of the marketing mix that involves defining product prices and pricing models. Pricing model Describes the form of payment such as outright purchase, auction, rental, volume purchases and credit terms.

Primary persona A representation of the typical site user.

Privacy A moral right of individuals to avoid intrusion into their personal affairs. (See also Security methods.)

Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations

Act A law intended to control the distribution of e-mail and other online communications including cookies.

Privacy statement Information on a web site explaining how and why individuals' data are collected, processed and stored.

Process variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the methods and procedures companies use to achieve all marketing functions. Product variable The element of the marketing mix that involves researching customers' needs and developing appropriate products. (See Core product and Extended product.)

Profiling See Customer profiling.

Promotion (online and offline) Online promotion uses communication via the Internet itself to raise awareness about a site and drive traffic to it. This promotion may take the form of links from other sites, banner advertisements or targeted e-mail messages. Offline promotion uses traditional media such as television or newspaper advertising and word of mouth to promote a company's web site.

Promotion variable The element of the marketing mix that involves communication with customers and other stakeholders to inform them about the product and the organisation. Prosumer 'Producer + consumer'. The customer is closely involved in specifying their requirements in a product.

Prototypes and prototyping A prototype is a preliminary version of part (or a framework of all) of a web site that can be reviewed by its target audience, or the marketing team. Prototyping is an iterative process where web site users suggest modifications before further prototypes are made and the final version of the site is developed.

Psychographic segmentation A breakdown of customers according to different characteristics. Public key A unique identifier of a buyer or a seller that is available to other parties to enable secure e-commerce using encryption based on digital certificates.

Public-key encryption An asymmetric form of encryption in which the keys or digital certificates used by the sender and receiver of information are different. The two keys are related, so only the pair of keys can be used together to encrypt and decrypt information.

Public-key infrastructure (PKI) The organisations responsible for issuing and maintaining certificates for public-key security together form the PKI. Pull media The consumer is proactive in selection of the message through actively seeking out a web site.

Push media Communications are broadcast from an advertiser to consumers of the message who are passive recipients.

Push technology The delivery of web-based content to the user's desktop without the need for the user to visit a site to download information. E-mail can also be considered to be a push technology. A particular type of information is a push channel.

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