Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) suggest that the following characteristics of identity need to be defined at the start of a brand building campaign. Marketing communications can then be developed that create and reinforce this identity. Here, we will apply them to Napster which is revisited in the main case study at the end of this chapter.
• Brand essence (a summary of what the brand represents)
This is not necessarily a tag line, but for Napster it has been described as an 'All you can eat music service which is fun and affordable'
Core identity (its key features)
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