Backbones High-speed communications links used to enable Internet communications across a country and internationally.

Balanced scorecard A framework for setting and monitoring business performance. Metrics are structured according to customer issues, internal efficiency measures, financial measures and innovation.

Bandwidth Indicates the speed at which data are transferred using a particular network medium. It is measured in bits per second (bps). kbps (one kilobit per second or 1000 bps; a modem operates at up to 56.6 kbps). Mbps (one megabit per second or 1 000 000 bps; company networks operate at 10 or more Mbps). Gbps (one gigabit per second or 1 000 000 000 bps; fibre-optic or satellite links operate at Gbps). Banner advertisement A typically rectangular graphic displayed on a web page for purposes of brand building or driving traffic to a site. It is normally possible to perform a clickthrough to access further information from another web site. Banners may be static or animated (see Animated banner advertisements).

Behavioural loyalty Loyalty to a brand is demonstrated by repeat sales and response to marketing campaigns.

Behavioural traits of web users Web users can be broadly divided into directed and undirected information seekers.

Bid A commitment by a trader to purchase under certain conditions.

Blog Personal online diary, journal or news source compiled by one person or several people.

Bluejacking Sending a message from a mobile phone or transmitter to another mobile phone which is in close range via Bluetooth technology.

Blueprints Show the relationships between pages and other content components, and can be used to portray organisation, navigation and labelling systems.

Bluetooth A standard for wireless transmission of data between devices, e.g. a mobile phone and a PDA.

Brand The sum of the characteristics of a product or service perceived by a user.

Brand equity The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand's name and symbol that add to (or subtract from) a service.

Brand experience The frequency and depth of interactions with a brand can be enhanced through the Internet.

Brand identity The totality of brand associations including name and symbols that must be communicated.

Branding The process of creating and evolving successful brands.

Bricks and mortar A traditional organisation with limited online presence.

Broadband technology A term referring to methods of delivering information across the Internet at a higher rate by increasing bandwidth. Brochureware A web site in which a company has simply transferred ('migrated') its existing paper-based promotional literature on to the Internet without recognising the differences required by this medium. Broker See Media broker. Browser See Web browser.

Business model A summary of how a company will generate revenue, identifying its product offering, value-added services, revenue sources and target customers.

Business-to-business (B2B) Commercial transactions between an organisation and other organisations (inter-organisational marketing).

Business-to-business exchanges or marketplaces

Virtual intermediaries with facilities to enable trading between buyers and sellers.

Business-to-consumer (B2C) Commercial transactions between an organisation and consumers. Buy-side e-commerce E-commerce transactions between a purchasing organisation and its suppliers.

Call centre A location for inbound and outbound telemarketing.

Callback service A direct response facility available on a web site to enable a company to contact a customer by phone at a later time as specified by the customer. Campaign-based e-communications E-marketing communications that are executed to support a specific marketing campaign such as a product launch, price promotion or a web site launch.

Campaign URL or CURL A web address specific to a particular campaign.

Card sorting The process of arranging a way of organising objects on the web site in a consistent manner.

Catalogue Catalogues provide a structured listing of registered web sites in different categories. They are similar to an electronic version of Yellow Pages. Yahoo! and Excite are the best known examples of catalogues. (Also known as directories.) The distinction between search engines and catalogues has become blurred since many sites now include both facilities as part of a portal service. Certificate A valid copy of a public key of an individual or organisation together with identification information. It is issued by a trusted third party (TTP) or certification authority (CA). Certification authority (CA) An organisation issuing and managing certificates or public keys and private keys to individuals or organisations together with identification information.

Channel buyer behaviour Describes which content is visited and the time and duration. Channel conflicts A significant threat arising from the introduction of an Internet channel is that while disintermediation gives the opportunity for a company to sell direct and increase the profitability of products it can also threaten existing distribution arrangements with existing partners.

Channel marketing strategy Defines how a company should set specific objectives for a channel such as the Internet and vary its proposition and communications for this channel.

Channel outcomes Record customer actions taken as a consequence of a visit to a site.

Channel profitability The profitability of the web site, taking into account revenue and cost and discounted cash flow.

Channel promotion Measures that assess why customers visit a site - which adverts they have seen, which sites they have been referred from.

Channel satisfaction Evaluation of the customer's opinion of the service quality on the site and supporting services such as e-mail. Clicks and mortar A business combining online and offline presence.

Clicks-only or Internet pureplay An organisation with principally an online presence.

Clickstream A record of the path a user takes through a web site. Clickstreams enable web site designers to assess how their site is being used.

Clickthrough A clickthrough (ad click) occurs each time a user clicks on a banner advertisement with the mouse to direct them to a web page that contains further information.

Clickthrough rate Expressed as a percentage of total ad impressions, and refers to the proportion of users viewing an advertisement who click on it. It is calculated as the number of clickthroughs divided by the number of ad impressions.

Click-tracking Java technology can be used to track movements of individual users to a web site. Client-server The client-server architecture consists of client computers such as PCs sharing resources such as a database stored on a more powerful server computer.

Co-branding An arrangement between two or more companies where they agree to jointly display content and perform joint promotion using brand logos or banner advertisements. The aim is that the brands are strengthened if they are seen as complementary. This is a reciprocal arrangement which can occur without payment. Cold list Data about individuals that are rented or sold by a third party.

Collaborative filtering Profiling of customer interest coupled with delivery of specific information and offers, often based on the interests of similar customers.

Commoditisation The process whereby product selection becomes more dependent on price than on differentiating features, benefits and value-added services.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI) A method of processing information on a web server in response to a customer's request. Typically a user will fill in a web-based form and the results will be processed by a CGI script (application). Active Server Pages (ASPs) are an alternative to a CGI script. Competitive intelligence (CI) A process that transforms disaggregated information into relevant, accurate and usable strategic knowledge about competitors, position, performance, capabilities and intentions.

Competitor analysis Review of Internet marketing services offered by existing and new competitors and adoption by their customers. Computer telephony integration The integration of telephony and computing to provide a platform for applications that streamline or enhance business processes.

Confidentiality See Security methods. Consumer-to-business (C2B) Consumers approach the business with an offer. Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) Informational or financial transactions between consumers, but usually mediated through a business site.

Contact or touch strategy Definition of the sequence and type of outbound communications required at different points in the customer lifecycle.

Content Content is the design, text and graphical information that forms a web page. Good content is the key to attracting customers to a web site and retaining their interest or achieving repeat visits. Content management Software tools for managing additions and amendments to web site content. Continuous e-communications Long-term use of e-marketing communications for customer acquisition (such as search engine and affiliate marketing) and retention (for example, e-newsletter marketing).

Convergence A trend in which different hardware devices such as televisions, computers and telephones merge and have similar functions. Conversion marketing Using marketing communications to maximise conversion of potential customers to actual customers.

Conversion rate Proportion of visitors to a site, or viewers of an advert, who take an action.

Cookies Cookies are small text files stored on an end-user's computer to enable web sites to identify the user. They enable a company to identify a previous visitor to a site, and build up a profile of that visitor's behaviour. See Persistent cookies, Session cookies, First-party cookies, Third-party cookies.

Core product The fundamental features of the product that meet the user's needs.

Core tenants A shopping centre or mall is usually a centrally owned managed facility. In the physical world, the management will aim to include in the mall stores that sell a different but complementary range of merchandise and include a variety of smaller and larger stores. The core tenants or 'anchor stores' as they are often called are the dominant large-scale store operators that are expected to draw customers to the centre.

Cost models for Internet advertising These include per-exposure, per-response and per-action costs.

Cost per acquisition (CPA) The cost of acquiring a new customer. Typically limited to the communications cost and refers to cost per sale for new customers. May also refer to other outcomes such as cost per quote or enquiry.

Cost per click (CPC) The cost of each click from a referring site to a destination site, typically from a search engine in pay-per-click search marketing. Cost per mille (CPM) Cost per 1000 ad impressions.

Cost per targeted mille (CPTM) Cost per targeted thousand for an advertisement. (See also Targeting.)

Countermediation Creation of a new intermediary by an established company.

Cracker A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around computer networks.

Cross-selling Persuading existing customers to purchase products from other categories to their typical purchases.

Customer acquisition Strategies and techniques used to gain new customers. Customer-centric marketing An approach to marketing based on detailed knowledge of customer behaviour within the target audience which seeks to fulfil the individual needs and wants of customers.

Customer communications channels The range of media used to communicate directly with a customer.

Customer experience See Online customer experience.

Customer extension Techniques to encourage customers to increase their involvement with an organisation.

Customer insight Knowledge about customers' needs, characteristics, preferences and behaviours based on analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. Specific insights can be used to inform marketing tactics directed at groups of customers with shared characteristics.

Customer journey A description of modern multichannel buyer behaviour as consumers use different media to select suppliers, make purchases and gain customer support.

Customer lifecycle The stages each customer will pass through in a long-term relationship through acquisition, retention and extension.

Customer loyalty The desire on the part of the customer to continue to do business with a given supplier over time. See Behavioural loyalty and Emotional loyalty.

Customer orientation Providing content and services on a web site consistent with the different characteristics of the audience of the site.

Customer profiling Using the web site to find out customers' specific interests and characteristics.

Customer relationship management (CRM) A

marketing-led approach to building and sustaining long-term business with customers. Customer retention Techniques to maintain relationships with existing customers. Customer satisfaction The extent to which a customer's expectations of product quality, service quality and price are met.

Customer scenarios (user journeys) Alternative tasks or outcomes required by a visitor to a web site. Typically accomplished in a series of stages of different tasks involving different information needs or experiences.

Customer selection Identifying key customer segments and targeting them for relationship building. Customer touchpoints Communications channels with which companies interact directly with prospects and customers. Traditional touchpoints include face-to-face (in-store or with sales representatives), phone and mail. Digital touchpoints include web services, e-mail and potentially mobile phone.

Cybermediaries Intermediaries who bring together buyers and sellers or those with particular information or service needs. Cyberspace and cybermarketing These terms were preferred by science-fiction writers and tabloid writers to indicate the futuristic nature of using the Internet, the prefix 'cyber' indicating a blurring between humans, machines and communications. The terms are not frequently used today since the terms Internet, intranet and World Wide Web are more specific and widely used.

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