The validity of the sampling process was examined empirically in several ways to assess whether the process introduced biases to the results. A comparison of the responses provided by early and late respondents indicated that non-response bias was not a cause for concern. Also, a test comparing responses stemming from the different modes of questionnaires, paper survey and Web-based survey, showed that there was not a significant bias in the responses based on the response mode.

To test the first two hypotheses regarding the viability of the main effects of trust (H1) and electronically mediated exchange (H2) in achieving collaboration, a regression using the full sample of 157 supply-chain relationships was run with trust and electronically mediated exchange as independent variables. A control variable, expected relationship duration, was first added as an independent variable in the regression analysis to account for this potential alternative explanation of variation in the collaboration construct.

The results of this analysis are shown in Table I. Jointly, trust and electronically mediated exchange significantly increased the adjusted R2 square by 14.7 percent over and beyond the R2 of 4.2 percent accounted for by the control variable. Individually, each of the projected main effects of trust and electronically mediated exchange proved to be strongly significant determinants of collaboration.

H3 concerned the role of transactional type as a moderator affecting the relative influence of trust and electronically mediated exchange on collaboration. This hypothesis was tested with separate regressions for the parts of the sample involving standardized and customized products, respectively. The control variable of expected relationship duration was added as an independent variable also in these cases.

Table II shows the results of the analysis of the 105 cases involving standardized products. In this case, trust and electronically mediated exchange together increased the adjusted R2 by 9.0 percent after considering the 3.8 percent

Niklas Myhr and Robert E. Spekman

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