Previously tested measurement scales were used for the various constructs. The measure of collaboration was based on the measure used by Kahn (1996) to measure interdepartmental collaboration. The measure of trust borrows scale items that Doney and Cannon (1997) used to measure salesperson trust in a business-to-business relationship setting. They derived the scale items from two components of trust, namely credibility and benevolence, but find that trust is a unidimensional construct. Electronically mediated exchange was based on scale items used by Kulchitsky (1997) in the context of marketing channel relationships. Finally, transactional type was operationalized as standardized products if key informants identified the goods being exchanged in a particular supply-chain relationship as either raw materials or components and as customized products if either subassemblies or subsystems were being selected. In this sample context, subassemblies and subsystems tend to be developed for specific applications and were not to be easily utilized elsewhere. To a large extent, these customized products are non-fungible assets.

The questionnaire items were changed to make sense in the specific context of upstream supply-chain relationships. Also, a challenge we faced with the key informant approach was to ensure that the key informants offered their assessments regarding overall relationships rather than only the perspectives of their own firms. Therefore, the questionnaire items were worded in dyadic, or relationship, terms with expressions such as "this relationship," "this supplier relationship," "both firms believe that," or "neither of us trusts the other side," to encourage respondents to consider how they think that a neutral observer closely monitoring the day-to-day relationship would characterize the overall relationship in question.

English was used as the language on all questionnaires since the corporations in the sample all were international companies accustomed to interacting in English with both internal and external constituencies. Moreover, key informants were provided with a high degree of flexibility with respect to the way in which they responded to the questionnaire, and this was achieved with a so-called mixed-mode questionnaire (Dillman, 2000). Therefore, we offered

key informants the choice between filling out a paper or a Web-based questionnaire.

The questionnaire pre-testing process included four steps, each of which resulted in improvements of the questionnaire. First, a set of four academic experts offered their feedback on a series of questionnaire drafts presented with subsets of questionnaire items. Second, two self-contained production units of two different Nordic MNCs agreed to host pretests on their premises where supply managers indicated how questionnaire items rated in terms of clarity. The managers also completed an item-sort task (Anderson and Gerbing, 1991) by matching each questionnaire item to a construct that they felt was most related to the questionnaire item. Moreover, these pretest participants provided qualitative feedback on both the questionnaire cover letter and the questionnaire instructions during retrospective interviews (Dillman, 2000). Third, participants in an Executive Education seminar for supply managers offered written comments on an updated version of the questionnaire. Fourth, a number of individuals from both academic and industry backgrounds tested the Web-based version of the questionnaire so that we could learn whether the process of completing the questionnaire on the internet could cause difficulties for those managers who elected to respond online. The Appendix shows the measures used in the study.

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