Cooperative adoption

Rogers (1995) defines adoption as "a decision to make full use of a new idea as the best course of action available." In other words, adoption involves some form of evaluation of an innovation to determine if it will best satisfy the needs of the prospective adopting organization, as well as the sustained use of the innovation (commonly referred to as full implementation). Rogers has identified elements of the innovation, the adopting unit, and the environment that affect the adoption decision. Many of these elements are more pronounced in the adoption of IOS due to the complexity of this high-technology product, which is why this research is framed using this technology.

According to Rogers, organizational innovation decisions can be classified as collective (the decision process to adopt or reject an innovation involves consensual consideration among the members of a system) or authoritative (the decision process to adopt or reject an innovation decision involves relatively few individuals who have power, status or technical expertise in a system) innovation decisions (Rogers, 1995) with each organization determining which of these forms to use. Cooperative adoption specifically refers to a collective inter-organizational process whereby adoption is led by a focal firm or firms.

The organizational adoption process has been well-researched across different disciplines (e.g. Frambach and Schillewaert, 2002; Gatignon and Robertson, 1989; Speier and Venkatesh, 2002; Srinivasan et al. , 2002). Among the organizational variables reflected in these studies are: knowledge of the environment, sensing of environmental threats, problem-solving skills, communication across organization units, risk-readiness, and resource availability. Other studies have shown that size and structure of the organization and interpersonal variables are salient in the organizational adoption process (Kennedy, 1983). Some of the variables are associated with the characteristics of an

innovation including compatibility, relative advantage, complexity and trailability (e.g. Rogers, 1995; Zaltman et al., 1973). Although these provide insights into the network adoption process, they do not include variables specific to cooperative adoption.

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