Collaboration is the degree to which partners are able to work together in a joint fashion toward their respective goals (Frazier, 1983), and has emerged as a key construct in the study of supply-chain partnerships given its espoused benefits. Collaborative supply-chain partnerships can both achieve significant cost savings and increase the overall competitiveness of the supply chain. Therefore, managers increasingly encourage and sponsor collaborative activities across organizational boundaries (Womack et al., 1990; Spekman et al. , 1998).

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