Football Ebook

American Football 101

American Football 101

Are you looking for a way to increase the capabilities of your football team? Is your football team leaving something to be desired? Are you looking to skyrocket your team's effectiveness with the most effective drills and plays?

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Youth Football Resources

These Youth Football Playbooks give you the ability to lead your youth football team to win after win through a series of three eBooks: T Formation, Pistol Offense, and Shotgun Jet/Fly Offense books. Each eBook contains over 70 fully diagrammed, full color plays and a full series based offense. This is not simple a collection of plays; it is a full guide of strategies. Each guide not only contains how to run the play; it gives additional runs and plays that compliment the main strategy. There are simply blocking strategies that you can easily teach your players. As a bonus, the T Formation eBook contains 8 Wildcat Formation Plays you can teach your team. This set of eBooks will help you coach your youth football team on a level they understand.

Youth Football Resources Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Dana Larson
Price: $12.00

My Youth Football Resources Review

Highly Recommended

This book comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Now ask yourself do you need a moment of truth

Next, I ask for arms to be raised by those who would dearly love, or have a secret longing, to be able to work full- time or dedicate themselves to their hobby. Think about how you would answer Around 80 raised their hand again. Who wouldn't want to devote their time and life to something that they feel passionate about whether it is stamp collecting, golf, astronomy or football.

What Is a Facebook Profile

A Facebook Profile is the way individual users represent themselves on the site (Figure 2-1). Typically it contains information about the user's interests, hobbies, school and work affiliations, and photos. It is also connected to any Facebook Pages he likes, from a favorite football team to a preferred brand of soda, as well as all the other Facebook users he identifies as friends.

The Difference Between a Page and a Profile

That college mascot raises an interesting question. You can't really friend the chicken that danced at football games (although you could friend the guy inside the costume) however, a mascot might have a distinct personality, with favorite quotes, books, and movies, just like the questions asked by a personal Profile. And of course movie stars, authors, and politicians have all the same favorites as the guy sitting next to you on the bus, yet they require a Page as well at least for their public persona.

Using the Google Keyword Suggestion Tool

Google's Keyword Suggestion Tool provides you not only with a list of potential keywords to target in your PPC or SEO efforts, but also with a list of potential negative keywords. Negative keywords are essential when putting together a PPC campaign. Your negative keywords are the words that prevent your ad from being triggered for display. The most commonly added negative keyword is free, because most advertisers do not want their products shown to someone who is searching for something free. However, there are also other keywords that may prove to be useful as negatives that you may initially overlook. For example, the word picture is often associated with popular e-commerce terms. If you have a sporting goods business and bid on keywords such as football and baseball, you should use picture as a negative keyword because there is a low probability that the keywords picture of football or baseball picture would convert into a sale.

Baskinginreflectedglory The Original Studies

The basic premise of BIRG is that individuals try to associate themselves with other individuals or groups who are successful. In academic research, BIRG was the result of a research program involving three different studies, in the context of college football (Cialdini et al., 1976). The first study used college students in seven universities with strong Division I football programs (including Michigan, Notre Dame, Ohio State, and Southern California) during the 1973 football season. The study examined the relationship between the outcome of a Saturday football game and students wearing clothing bearing their school's logo or name the following Monday. It was hypothesized that students would be more likely to wear clothes that made their association with the school obvious on the days following a victory. Because of the school's team success, it was expected that students would be more eager to publicize their association with the school. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing...

Creating advocacy with Icecards

Mania Adidas

Icecards campaign for promotion of the adidas Predator football boot. Activity Icecards featured footballers from around the globe wearing the new Predator shoe. The campaign was initiated by sending out a handful of emails to football fans inviting them to sign up for the cards. The email spread exponentially as it was forwarded to friends who forwarded it to friends, reaching 180 countries around the world.

Structure URLs Correctly

Containers full of related information. Each container should be labeled appropriately with a URL. Your Web site's baseball section should be located at www.example. com baseball, and your Web site's football section should be located at football. Individual pages about baseball topics should be placed within their respective containers. Suppose you created a page about your favorite baseball player, Manny Ramirez. Place his page at Structure your page URLs in this manner, and you create an easily spidered, organized, user-friendly Web site navigation system. The search engines can easily find each content-rich page and relate it back to its parent category. Search-engine users prefer clean, well-structured URLs when searching for a page. If searching for a page about Manny Ramirez, a large majority of search-engine users would be more inclined to click a URL like www. baseball manny-ramirez.html versus player1.html.

Similarities and Differences Between Shoham and Kahles Regression Analysis and This Studys Analysis

As mentioned, this study is quite similar to Shoham and Kahle's conceptually. One difference lies in the measurement of watching sports on TV Shoham and Kahle asked about watching weekend sport games shows, whereas this study measured frequency of watching sports on TV in general. Weekend sports are mostly competitive sports (e.g., football and tennis). Sports in general can cover all kinds of sports. This may explain why fitness sport and nature-related sport in Shoham and Kahle's study were not significant predictors of watching sports on television (mainly

Dotcom Advertising Fails to Inspire a New Creative Revolution

Among the most creative and popular of the ads for the dot-com companies were the campaign created for the online trading firm Ameritrade that featured Stuart, the young, ponytailed, red-headed day trader ads featuring Socks, the fast-talking dog sock puppet for ads with sci-fi celebrity William Shatner singing off key for and commercials for the online financial services company E*Trade featuring a chimpanzee. There were also numerous dot-com ads that pushed the limits of good taste to get attention and build awareness. Commercials for online retailer included a spot showing gerbils being shot out of cannon into a backboard,and another featured a marching band on a football field forming the words and then being attacked by a pack of wolves., an online retailer of software and computer-related products, helped pioneer the crazy dot-com advertising genre with its Naked Man campaign that featured a fictitious character shopping...

Using Latent Semantic Content

In the world of organic search, latent semantic content refers to words that are connected thematically to a specific search query. For example Brian Westbrook, Philadelphia, and football are all connected to Philadelphia Eagles. If the theme of your Web page is Philadelphia Eagles, the Web site does not need the keyword Philadelphia Eagles

Giving Customers Authority for Your Claims

Attention to both the quality of these photos and what they communicate to the viewer. While a photo of a top bike racer consulting on the repair of his bike at a local bike repair shop would be very effective, a 15-year-old picture of a former football player eating in a restaurant may subtly tell the customer that the restaurant is as out of date as the quarterback.

PVRs May Change the Future of Television Advertising

The Future Advertising

How about being able to leave the room in the middle of an exciting football game to answer the door or go to the bathroom and, when you return, being able to resume watching the game from the point where you left off These capabilities are no longer the dreams of TV viewers. They are now realities thanks to new consumer electronic devices called personal video recorders, or PVRs (also called digital video recorders), which hit the market a few years ago. And while they may be the answer to TV viewers' dreams, many argue that PVRs may be the television and advertising industries' worst nightmare.

Bad Boys Become Pitchmen for Athletic Shoes

Rodman was also able to parlay his irreverent and rebellious image into an endorsement contract with Nike, as well as a number of other companies, although his antics eventually became too much for most of these companies. The new generation of bad-boy pitchmen includes NBA stars such as Allan Iverson and Lattrell Sprewell as well as retired athletes such as baseball star Pete Rose and former Oakland Raider football players Ken Stabler and Jack Tatum.

Survey Results From Students

They are involved in sports, both as spectators and participants. More than three fourths of them (77 ) play some sort of recreational sport, with nearly one fifth of them (18 ) being college athletes themselves. College athletes taking part in this study are involved in a variety ofvarsity athletics basketball, football, cross-country, lacrosse, soccer, volleyball, swimming, tennis, and track. In addition, 90 watch professional sports, predominantly basketball and football. When asked to identify their favorite professional athlete, 55 listed Michael Jordan and of those who identified him as their favorite, 100 could recall that he wears Nike shoes. As the numbers suggest, these students, who were attending universities where sports are a visible part of the campus scene, had made sports an active part of their own lifestyle. They played sports, watched sports, and admired the exceptional athletes who were at the pinnacle of their games.

Ingame advertising and marketing

Buzz is often created, especially if there is a topical link in the real world. For example, FIFA's branding can be found on the promotional hoardings featured in the computer game FIFA 2006, which in the run-up to the football World Cup 2006, will be the focus of a great deal of gameplay and buzz. Other less topical examples include the McDonald's brand being featured in The Sims. This technique is still capable of generating some buzz, but on a limited scale (there will be some kudos attached to eating at McDonald's in The Sims, so it is likely to be talked about).

Do Sport Sponsorship Announcements Influence Firm Stock Prices

The proliferation of sports event sponsorship opportunities, the amount of money flowing from marketers to event sponsorship, and the development of a body of academic literature dedicated to cataloging various sports sponsorship objectives, strategies, tactics, and effects attest to its acceptance by marketers as a viable integrated marketing communication strategy (Cornwell & Maignan, 1998). Originally considered unusual or innovative, sports sponsorship may now be as common as more traditional marketing communication strategies as burgeoning sports leagues compete with established leagues for sports sponsorship funds. Overlapping football, basketball, baseball, and hockey seasons in the United States provided 200 professional sports events during October 2000 (Petrecca, 2000). Sports saturation has resulted in declining TV ratings, yet sports sponsorship spending continues to rise (IEG, 2002). However, some prominent sponsors are beginning to back away from sponsorship IBM...

The Moderating Role Of Team Identification

Given people's desire to maintain a positive image in the eyes of others, highly identified fans may struggle between trying to maintain such a positive image and not CORFing from their favorite team after losses. Research has identified a coping mechanism for dealing with this challenge, blasting (Cialdini & Richardson, 1980 End, 2001). The notion of blasting describes a fan's attempt to be perceived positively even after his or her team loses by saying derogatory things about (blasting) the opponents. The assumption is that by putting down the competition, a fan would still be perceived in a positive light despite his or her team's loss. In a study of Internet message boards for National Football League (NFL) fans, End (2001) found that fans used the Internet for BIRGing and for blasting their opponents and the opponents' fans. Interestingly, a greater proportion of blasting messages were posted after victories rather than losses, suggesting that, in some respects, blasting may...

The Construct Of Social Identity

A central tenet of social identity theory is that people are motivated to maintain a positive social identity Tajfel and Turner (1979) explicitly stated that intergroup behavior is motivated by self-esteem. When one's social identity is made salient in a situation, a positive evaluation of that person's group satisfies his or her need for self-worth or self-esteem. Consistent with balance theory (Heider, 1958), people seek associations with successful others in order to enhance their own esteem in the eyes of others. For example, Cialdini et al. (1976) found that students were more apt to wear clothes featuring their school's colors or insignia the day after a game in which their football team won rather than lost. Moreover, they also used the inclusive pronoun we more frequently when describing a winning effort and the exclusive pronoun they in describing a loss. This phenomenon was referred to as basking in reflected glory (BIRG). According to balance theory, people who evaluate the...

Case Study 5 Sega Beta

To stimulate interest in a soon-to-be-released Sega software videogame title, the company's advertising agency Wieden & Kennedy created a faux blog that was authored by an imaginary videogame tester called Beta 7. After having being sent a preview copy of the new ESPN NFL Football 2K4 game, Beta 7 posted his review on his blog, telling readers that it was so extreme it triggered blackouts and fits of violence. Anxious to prevent the software from reaching the stores, Beta 7 used his blog to launch an online campaign to get the game banned - a sure-fire way to stimulate sales 9

Context Of Violence In The Media

Thus, sport in and of itself is an important site for the study of violence. However, it is equally important to acknowledge that sport, at least elite media-produced sport, has become an entertainment commodity. As such, it is subject to the same market and capitalist accumulation forces facing other products, including the need to attract and continually expand the size of its audience or consumer base. In order to attract and maintain their audience, the sport industry, in conjunction with its many corporate alliances, has developed innovative marketing and advertising campaigns. As a result, sporting contests have become multidimensional entertainment and merchandising events, where the specific commodity being sold is increasingly difficult to identify. One particular feature that not only is highlighted but also has become a naturalized feature of some sporting events is conflict and violence. The very rules of sporting codes such as boxing, ice hockey, football, and rugby...

Just For Feet Sues Its Ad Agency for Malpractice

In addition to its concerns over the creative work, Just For Feet ran into another major problem. The company planned a sweepstakes promotion, the Just For Feet Third Quarter Super Bowl Win a Hummer Contest. In the weeks leading up to the game, Just For Feet spent 800,000 on promotional teaser spots during the National Football League conference championship games. These spots told viewers to watch the third quarter of the Super Bowl and find out how many times the Just For Feet name was mentioned. Viewers who wanted to participate in the contest could telephone or go to the company's website to enter their answers. However,the spot ran in the fourth quarter of the big game, making the contest's correct answer zero. The website would not accept zero as the answer, so customers were left with the mistaken impression that Just For Feet was attempting to trick or deceive them, according to the lawsuit. The Super Bowl spot was bought by Zenith media, which is a sibling of Saatchi &...

Expanding the Total Demand

Prior to 2006, NutriSystem featured only a few men in its customer testimonials. However, it now directly targets men with its NutriSystem Advanced Men's Program. The weight-management company advertises regularly in male-skewing media such as ESPN TV and radio, Sports Illustrated, and Men's Health magazines , NutriSystem spends nearly one-third of its television advertising budget on male-oriented networks. The men's program offers pretty much the same types of meals offered to women. Ads feature sports legends such as American football star Dan Marino (who lost 22 pounds on the NutriSystem program) and American football coach Don Schula (who lost 32 pounds). They focus on what men want most not having to think about losing weight, no group meetings, and prepackaged man foods. In one commercial, Marino proclaims, With NutriSystem, I got to eat the foods I grew up with back in Pittsburgh burgers, hot dogs, lasagna, pancakes, pot roast, meatballs foods

Viagogo As A New Intermediary

Baker has organized a number of partnerships and deals with music promoters, as well as Premier League football clubs. In Britain, antihooligan laws actually prevent the reselling of football tickets. But viagogo has managed to get around these rules by organizing exclusive deals with clubs, meaning that viagogo is the only place to legally resell a ticket. Across many different business and media interests, viagogo has received accolades for its services. The chief executive of Chelsea Football Club, Peter Kenyon, said, This is a service for Two weeks ago, a committee of politicians from the British Parliament rejected calls from the concert promoter and sports industry lobbies for legislation to prevent the resale of live event tickets and instead recommended industry self-regulation. This is another landmark event in the rapid growth of an increasingly global industry. The trend that we have witnessed in the U.S. of state after state repealing its anti-scalping laws most recently...

Evolution Of The Sale Of Farggi Products In Supermarkets And Other Types Of Nonexclusive Shop For Home Consumption

In August 1993, Farggi signed a contract with the Barcelona Football Club for the exclusive sale of ice creams in its sports facilities. The purpose of this contract was to create brand impact and enable a large number of people to taste Farggi's products. Mini Tub's (100 ml) and Batonets were sold from 25 carts at 350 pesetas each. The contract would run for three years, with Farggi paying 15 million pesetas year.

ESPNMore E and Less S

For many years, TV sports programming consisted primarily of football,baseball,and to a lesser extent basketball shown primarily on weekends on network television. When ESPN, the first cable network devoted entirely to sports programming, was launched in 1979, the critics declared that all the good sports are already on the three networks. They ridiculed the network for broadcasting sports such as stock-car racing, which was described as two hours of left turns. However, no one is laughing at ESPN today. It is one of the top cable networks, reaching 86 million homes in the United States 10 million more than its closest competitor. Its signature show, SportsCenter a one-hour sports news show that is aired numerous times throughout the day and night is emblematic of the entire network and has helped position ESPN as the place for the ultimate sports fan, not just another cable channel showing sports. An award-winning advertising campaign consisting of humorous spots that purport to give...

George Preston Marshall

Football team and moved the franchise to Washington, DC, renaming it the Washington Redskins. In those days, professional football was more of a curiosity than serious sport. Baseball was the national pastime. Football was something to do on a cold Sunday afternoon with no great import or urgency. Through songwriter Barnee Breeskin, the conductor of the orchestra at Washington's Shoreham Hotel, Marshall produced a fight song, the first for a professional football team. Breeskin's opus was originally called the Washington Redskins March. Today, it is known throughout the United States as Hail to the Redskins It became the rallying cry as crowds grew from the hundreds to the thousands, singing the song not just in the stadium but also on the streets and in bars and taverns as the popularity of the team grew. It is still a staple of the football franchise, sung by the crowd after every Redskin touchdown and field goal more than 60 years later, a lasting marketing medium. Marshall also...

The Debate over Directto Consumer Drug Advertising

Drug Advertising

Direct-to-consumer drug advertising spending soared from 859 million in 1997 to 2.8 billion in 200l. In recent years there has been a flurry of ads hawking prescription drugs for a variety of medical problems and conditions, including allergies, heartburn, arthritis, depression, and impotence. Drug companies use celebrities to pitch their products just as effectively as other marketers do. A television commercial for cholesterol drug Zocor features National Football League coach Dan Reeves stating, Taking care of my cholesterol it has become an important part of my game plan. Former figure skating champion and Olympic gold medalist Dorothy Hammill talks about experiencing the pain of osteoarthritis in a commercial for Vioxx. Pfizer used former vice president Bob Dole as an advertising spokesperson when it launched Viagra in 1998 and now spends nearly 100 million a year to advertise the male impotence drug. Texas Ranger's baseball star Rafiel Palmeiro appears in ads for the product,...

Naming Stadiumsan Expensive and Risky Business

There was a time when stadiums and arenas were named after their sports teams and or cities. There were the Boston Gardens in Boston, Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Wimbledon in Wimbledon, and Old Trafford in Old Trafford (where the Manchester United U.K. football team plays). But all of that has changed. Boston Gardens is now the Fleet Center (named after a bank), and stadiums named after companies include Conseco Fieldhouse (home of the Indiana Pacers and named after an insurance company), Reebok Stadium (sports equipment and apparel), Bradford and Bingley Stadium (savings and loan) in the U.K., and ANZ Stadium (bank), North Power Stadium (power company), and Aussie Stadium (Aussie Home Loans) in Australia. Let's not forget Qualcomm Stadium (San Diego), PNB Park (Pittsburgh), and the United Center (Chicago). And the list goes on.

The Nature of Each Promotion Tool

Nature Each Promotion Tool

Advertising can reach masses of geographically dispersed buyers at a low cost per exposure, and it enables the seller to repeat a message many times. For example, television advertising can reach huge audiences. An estimated 97.5 million Americans tuned in to watch the most recent Super Bowl (America's championship football game), about 32 million people watched at least part of the last Academy Awards broadcast, and 33.4 million fans tuned in to watch the debut episode of the fourth season of the reality show American Idol. For companies that want to reach a mass audience, TV is the place to be.18

Product Bundle Pricing

In other cases, product-bundle pricing is used to sell more than the customer really wants. Obtaining a ticket to an exclusive sports event is difficult, but World Cup football finals tickets are available to people willing to buy them bundled with a supersonic Concorde flight.

Case Study 5 EMAP Get your kit off

In January 2004, Roman Abramovich's high-flying Chelsea Football Club was drawn away to play the minnows of Scarborough Town in the third round of the FA Cup, traditionally a stage of the competition that throws up David versus Goliath tussles. As it turned out, Chelsea against Scarborough proved to be a timely draw as far as the battle of the lads' magazines went. The hope was that this unique deal was going to cause a furore at the Football Association (FA) headquarters in Soho Square, London, and be the trigger for the level of publicity that was needed to get into the lads' consciousness and conversations. And that's exactly what happened. The legendary football agent, Eric Hall, was chosen to be the man to broker the deal between Zoo and Scarborough. He would add credibility, deflecting any notion that it was nothing more than a blatant PR stunt. In effect, the magazine was prepared to pay reasonably big money to the players' pool at Scarborough. Having said that, it probably...

Discussing applying the concepts

Worldwide global advertising expenditures grew 6.7 percent in 2008, up from 5.3 percent in 2007, largely thanks to the Olympic Games in China, the U.S. elections and European football. Developing markets are now becoming an important part of that growth, compensating for the slower growth in more developed markets. It is estimated that by 2010, China will have become the fourth largest advertising market, and Russia will have grown to sixth. It is also estimated that between 2007 and 2010, expenditures for advertising on the Internet will grow some 69 percent, and its overall market share will have grown from 8.1 percent to 11.5 percent. By 2010, the Internet will also have overtaken magazines to be the third largest advertising medium. Since 2006, global advertising expenditures have increased from 432,111 million to 542,768 million. Marketers need to be accountable for these expenditures, so audience measurement is crucial. Technological solutions abound to help marketers assess how...

Cokes World Cup tactics

Compared with just 12 years ago global audiences are far more sophisticated. They are far more likely to include women and children and fans are far more likely to have travelled abroad, appreciating the cross-cultural power of the tournament. Brand advertising must reflect this In a world of diversity, and increasing distrust of US cultural hegemony, one suspects the soft drinks giant has finally got its football strategy right.

When Positions Collide

Sometimes trying to appeal directly to the tastes of children can backfire. Healthy children's cereal Weetabix had to withdraw a campaign showing its cereal bars dressed as skin-heads who came too close to looking like football hooligans. Lego faced a similar backlash when it promoted its educational toys using an unsavoury Lego character driving a Lego car recklessly. Some parents thought it looked too mueh like joy riding.

Team Identification And Corporate Sponsorship

Purchase products from corporate sponsors of a favorite team. Data were collected from 678 individuals attending a college football game. The majority of respondents were season ticket holders (65.8 ) and male (62.5 ). The study's findings indicated that the largest contributor to purchase intentions was group norms, followed by team identification. Interestingly, and in contrast to the predicted disordinal interaction, a significant ordinal interaction was found. Although significant for both, group norms had a greater effect on intentions at lower levels of identification than they did at higher levels of identification. Madrigal concluded that this unexpected effect was probably due to the composition of the sample. The majority of the sample was comprised of season ticket holders, and all study respondents were physically present at the football game. It is therefore logical to assume especially in light of the skewed distribution discovered for the team identification measure...

Teams as Brands A Review of the Sports Licensing Concept

In fact, while studying the Atlanta Braves baseball team and sponsors CocaCola and Auto Zone, Dalakas, Rose, and Aiken (2001) and Dalakas and Burton (2002) found that the more a fan is identified with a team, the greater the likelihood the fan would understand the role of sponsorship and support the team's sponsors in retail settings. Madrigal's (2000, 2001) comprehensive research with American college football fans also showed that highly identified fans share a norm that suggests attitudes toward properties contribute to a consumer's intentions to purchase sponsors' products. Thus, the team identification benefit not only goes beyond the team's branded image but also serves the equities of players, broadcasters, and team sponsors. It also gives credence to a popular refrain often uttered by NASCAR auto manufacturers Win on Sunday, Sell on Monday because the victory translates into retail benefit. A team that loses, however, creates a situation called cutting off reflected failure...

Sport Sponsorship And Stock Prices 229 Table 111

Football 16 In addition to announcement date and event-brand sponsor partners, each announcement was coded for type of sport (see the earlier search terms) and event scope, defined as local, national, or international. Local sponsorships are those that are confined to a single event and that are unlikely to generate significant media coverage or interest beyond the local region. National sponsorships are defined as events that are likely to generate some level of national media coverage, such as a college football bowl game or a highprofile golf tournament. Sponsorships for national sporting federations or teams are also included here. For example, in 1997 Coca-Cola announced a sponsorship agreement with the Women's National Basketball Association. This specific announcement noted that the brand was supporting the league and its many teams, rather than pairing with any particular team. In the case of the Olympics, sponsor partners could be worldwide or national sponsors. For example,...

Viral agent formats risks and issues

The dangers of using a simple text email, for example, are illustrated by a Carlsberg-branded viral email that was passed from contact to contact during the UEFA Euro 2004 football tournament.17 The familiar Carlsberg 'probably the best' creative theme impels user appropriation in the same way as Mastercard's 'Priceless' theme. Unsurprisingly, the original Carlsberg email was hijacked at some point in its viral travels - the words 'Shame their lager tastes like p*ss'were added to the punch line. As for ARGs, it's difficult to see how they can really be integrated successfully into an overall marketing strategy. They can certainly work in an entertainment context, such as promoting a film or video game as Beta-7 for Sega's ESPN NFL Football18 and 'ilovebees' for Microsoft Xbox's Halo 219 have done. But they are aimed at people who love mysteries and puzzles and have a lot of time on their hands. As a viral mechanic, ARGs may well be too involved and expensive for the vast majority of...

Street Promotions and Other Unique Promotions

The agency in charge of the grand-opening events for the Vanity Fair Factory Outlet Malls wanted to create awareness in the media that there was something special inside the shopping center. To accomplish this, the agency ran a promotion For the four days of the grand opening, the mall would be giving away a free pair of Lee jeans (made by Vanity Fair) to the first 400 people who came through the door. Each day, there was a line of more than 400 people, stretching almost the length of three football fields, all camping out on beach chairs and blankets before the doors even opened. To the media who passed by and saw a huge line every morning, their only impression was that there must be something going on inside the new store. To the traffic reporters who saw traffic jams on the nearby roads, they reported on a new hot store that has lines before it even opens.

Implications For Sports Marketing And Advertising

Corporate sponsorship may also be an effective way to capitalize on BIRG. Establishing a direct association between a team enables a company to elicit positive responses from the team's fans (Dalakas, Kropp, Shoham, & Florenthal, 1997 Dalakas, Rose, & Aiken, 2001 Madrigal, 2000, 2001). Therefore, sponsors can capitalize by having their name or logo appear on licensed merchandise commemorating team victories. They may also run promotions tied to the team's victories or use advertising themes that highlight the team's success. Highly identified fans are more likely to notice the sponsor's ads (Dalakas et al., 2001) and more likely to BIRG (Wann & Branscombe, 1990). An interesting twist regarding sponsorship and BIRG pertains to many sporting events and championships that have title sponsors. This is especially relevant (but not limited) to collegiate football with Bowl games having title sponsors (e.g., FedEx Orange Bowl, Tostitos Fiesta Bowl, Nokia Sugar Bowl). Future research could...

Company Case

In order to imbed the project into the community, Bahrain Bay decided to sponsor and make a substantial donation to the Busaiteen Football Club. Vincent explained why As Bahrain Bay develops a new waterfront community along the north shore of Manama, it is imperative that we take our philosophy of community development and support into the communities already present around Bahrain Bay. The community we are creating will affect not only the people and businesses who wish to live and operate In Bahrain Bay, but it will also touch those communities around it for a long time to come. By investing in and working with local activities now, we are creating the foundations for a long lasting partnership between Bahrain Bay and its wider community. Our support of Busaiteen represents how we are making our objective a reality. Sport is an important part of the social fabric of any community, and it's great to be part of the Busaiteen story, Bahrain Bay's local team, and we hope that our...


Reference Group Influence

Reference groups are groups that serve as direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person's attitudes or behaviour. Reference groups to which they do not belong often influence people. For example, an aspirational group is one to which the individual wishes to belong, as when a teenage football player hopes to play some day for Manchester United. He identifies with them, although there is no face-to-face contact between him and the team.


Twenty-eight different sports were represented in the athlete-endorsed ads captured in this study Although there were several decades when a particular sport appeared to be popular in athlete endorsement (e.g., ice skating in the 1990s or gymnastics in the 1980s), overall, the top six sports (baseball, tennis, football, basketball, golf, and car racing) have been consistently represented over time. The comparison also revealed that the sports most often represented in Sports Illustrated were similar to the findings from the general readership magazine study (i.e., baseball, tennis, football, car racing, basketball, and golf ). Sports Illustrated has also seen a switch from male-oriented products to undifferentiated products. Another similarity found in the comparison is the location of athlete endorsed products on the FCB Grid (see Fig. 5.3). The type of products appearing in Quadrant I (high involvement thinking) are also primarily advertised in Sports Illustrated....

Keeping Your Team

Football team managers don't have hang-ups about keeping their players. They appreciate that their business is dynamic so is yours. Good people are always in demand. Don't be surprised when a rival offers to pay big to attract your employees. Make sure you always have your eyes on replacements for all members of your team. Similarly, work out what their promotion prospects should be and what would be the best project or type of work for them to tackle next, not just from the company's point of view but from theirs as well.

Who Killed OS2

Then there was IBM's sponsorship of college football's Fiesta Bowl (soon known internally as The Fiasco Bowl ). To many observers, it was unclear what benefit IBM derived from slapping the name OS 2 on a second-tier sporting event. No demographic information seemed to exist that indicated that people who watched the Fiesta Bowl were also highly interested in 32-bit OSs, and there wasn't much proof that watching a college football game would make people more inclined to rush home and demand computer resellers stock up on OS 2. Regardless, after buying the sponsorship, the Fiesta Bowl was duly renamed the IBM OS 2 Fiesta Bowl, and the organizers of the event asked IBM for their lineup of sponsors. Uh, what sponsors the IBMers replied. At this point, IBM learned that along with the right to advertise its own products during the football game, it had also bought a series of time slots it was supposed to allot to the third-party vendors of its choice. IBM's Austin group had no experience...

Measuring Success

Along the creative line, think about the actual ad or e-mail you are sending. Is this message working for me Remember that an ad or message might work well with one audience, but not another on one particular Web site, but not another. Microsoft's gives a good analogy If you are promoting Christmas ornaments, an ad for a football ornament may do well on a sports Web site, but not on a religious one. So be sensitive to the need to change your message if necessary as you change your target audience.

Image Transfer

McDonald (1991) described what he referred to as product relevance (p. 36), which can be either direct or indirect. Indirect relevance is proposed to imply association at an abstract, more image-based level. A strong and traditional bank sponsoring the traditional sport of football (soccer) was given as an example of indirect relevance, where the link was tradition. Relating back to the previous discussion, in this example the message would be that this bank is like the soccer league in that they are both traditional. In fact, anecdotal evidence of reverse image transfer, without negative impact on the brand, has been cited. Jones and Dearsley (1989 cf. McDonald, 1991) found that the image of football (soccer) was actually improved by a sponsorship by Barclays Bank during a time when football was receiving a lot ofbad press. Apparently, this association transferred the perception of stability from Barclays to the soccer league without transferring rowdiness to Barclays. Perhaps...


The Dow Jones Interactive (DJI) Business Newsstand database was used to locate sports sponsorship announcements. This on-line database covers the 50 largest circulation United States newspapers, as well as business and financial press wires. The database was searched using the keyword sponsorship in combination with the following terms football, baseball, tennis, auto racing, soccer, Olympics, and hockey. An other category was included to account for sports events that were observed infrequently, such as yacht and horse racing. Table 11.1 details the number of sponsorship announcements for each pair of search terms.

Generating buzz

Want an example of a strong brand experience Think of Cinnabon. Within a football field's distance of the shopping mall food court, you know whether or not it has a Cinnabon. The company has perfected what's called an olfactory signature more commonly known as a scent that announces the brand's presence and readies customers for what has become a highly predictable brand experience.

The Sport Product

The Sport Competition or Event Is Manufactured and Consumed Onsite, Resulting in an Inconsistent and Unpredictable Product. People produce sport, and people are inconsistent. Although most businesses would fail quickly if the consumer could not rely on a consistent product, sport organizations use this characteristic to attract fans. Next weekend's football game will not be identical to the last one. Even though fans want their team to win, sport consumers thrive on not knowing what the outcome of the competition will be. Because of the skill level of the home and opposing teams, injury status of key players, even the weather, each event results in a different competitive outcome and a different response by fans.

Heart of Darkness

DBASE was originally designed to help place winning bets in football pools and was the creation of Wayne Ratliff, a contract programmer at the U.S. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Although Ratliff didn't get rich on sports betting, he did decide his new software program had commercial potential. Named Vulcan in honor of the home planet of Star Trek's Mr. Spock, Ratliff placed his first ad for the product in the October 1979 issue of BYTE magazine. At its release, Vulcan was priced at 50.00, and though there was flurry of initial interest,1 the stress of trying to

Brief Ad History

Still too long ago for you Maybe you've heard of Coke's ad showing a bruised and battered Mean Joe Green tossing his shirt to a young fan after the boy shares his Coke with the pro football player. The ad appears consistently at the top of Best Super Bowl Ads lists. Or how about Coke is it Can't Beat the Feeling Certainly you would remember the jingle made famous in the 1990s, Always Coca-Cola. And who doesn't make some association between the sweet, dark, bubbly beverage and polar bears Innovative animation technology put those lovable creatures in only a handful of ads, but they are forever etched in the memories of consumers everywhere.

Target Markets

With a world skating market of over 31 million that is steadily growing (statistics released by the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association), the niche has been created. Pegasus' atm is to expand this markel by promoting SkateSailiug, a new sport which is popular In both Santa Monica and Venice Beach in California, The Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association survey indicates that skating now has more participation than football soflball, skiing, and snowboarding combined,. The breakdown of participation in Skating is as follows 1 + speed (growing), H hockey (declining), 7 extreme aggressive (declining), 22 fitness 1 nearly 7 million the fastest growing), and t)l . recreational (first-timers). Pegasus' produc s arc largeiing the fiiness and recreational groups, becEtuse they art the fastest growing. These groups are gearing themselves toward health and fitness, and combined, they ean easily grow to 83 percent (or million) of the market iu the next five years.

Interactive TV ITV

Dish DVR users were able to click into 30- and 60-second TV spots starring American football star San Diego Chargers running back LaDanian Tomlinson and other fleet-footed Nike athletes. Nike gave them the option to view interview footage of the football star discussing his exhaustive training regimen, footage of Tomlinson's signature spin move in different speeds, a Nike-branded game designed to test viewers' remote-control reflexes, and a three-dimensional demo of the Zoom shoe. Nike made similar interactive content available in ads featuring several other Nike endorsers, including basketball's Steve

Review Of Literature

Although other ESM research has been published examining an auto race (Cornwell, Pruitt, & Van Ness, 2001) and the Olympics (Miyazaki & Morgan, 2001), the research reported here considers the possibility that investors might respond more favorably to some sports relative to others. Because companies listed on American stock exchanges are used for this research, there may be a bias toward sports most popular in America, especially American-style football, baseball, and basketball.