International marketing research generally refers to marketing research undertaken in countries other than that in which the research was commissioned. The challenge for the researcher here is to provide information from a culturally diverse, rapidly changing world. Each country in which research is conducted will have its own unique characteristics and mores with which the researcher may not be familiar. At the outset certain factors need to be taken into account in the research design. These include:
Functional equivalence Scalar equivalence
Do concepts such as 'brand loyalty' have the same meaning and significance in each country selected? Does a product have the same or similar function in the selected countries? Do scale measurements taken in selected countries produce the same or similar results?
Does language used when translated provide the same meaning for respondents, whether verbally or in written form?
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