Further reading

Collins, M. (1986), Sampling, in Worcester, R.M. and Downham, J. (eds), Consumer Market Research Handbook, 3rd Edition, Esomar, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead. Entwistle, J. and Rocamora, A. (2GG6), The field of fashion materialized a study of London Fashion Week, Sociology, Vol. 4G, No. 4, pp. 135-151, BSA Publications Ltd., London. DOI 1G.1 Ill GG38G385G6G65158. Hague, P. (2GG3), Marketing Research A Guide to Planning, Methodology and Evaluation, 3rd Edition, Kogan-Page Limited, London. Journal of...

Organization of the fashion industry

In recent years the haute couturiers have, along with established designers, tended to move towards greater brand differentiation to capitalize on their names and some have also decentralized their manufacturing operations to cut costs. Some manufacturers now produce and distribute designer collections, enabling haute couture or designer names to be made available to a larger market at more accessible prices through ready-to-wear ranges. The announcement by the French government in the early...

Primary data collection online

The main methods of collecting primary data via the Internet are by e-mail or website-based surveys or by online discussion groups. With e-mail surveys, questionnaires are sent to respondents at their e-mail address. The questionnaires are then completed and returned online. The advantages of speed of both delivery and return are clear, as are cost savings over mail surveys. Disadvantages of this method are that e-mail is not completely confidential and that respondents selected as having...

The purpose of marketing research 421 What is marketing research

Kotler (2000) defines marketing research as 'the systematic design, analysis and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company'. It is often asked whether there is a difference between market research and marketing research. The difference is in the scope of an investigation, as shown in Figure 4.1. Market research is used to refer to research into a specific market, investigating such aspects as market size, market trends, competitor analysis, and...

Consumer personality

Personality is the particular configuration of qualities that make a person unique. Two main approaches to personality will be considered, psychographics and the self-concept. Earlier approaches to consumer behaviour concentrated on consumer personality traits and tried to discover consumer types. The hope was that having identified certain types of consumer, buyer behaviour could be predicted and fashion products could be produced and promoted accordingly. Unfortunately, the correlation...

Breakeven calculations

A central concern of marketing personnel in the fashion industry is balancing the relationship between price and volume. For example, a clothing manufacturer may manufacture 20 000 skirts and wish to know how many must be sold to cover costs. In other words, at what point will the manufacturer break even and begin to earn profits The first example assumes the manufacturer is in a relationship where prices are fixed by fierce competitive pressures and tough negotiating from retail buyers....

Mail postal questionnaire

If the survey population is widely dispersed, it may be more useful to send the questionnaire by mail than to have an interviewer call on the respondent. Mail surveys also have the advantage of a reduction in field staff, and if there is a high response rate, the cost per questionnaire is low. A high response rate is more likely if the survey population consists of members of a special interest group (e.g. keep-fit enthusiasts) and the questionnaire relates to their area of interest. Otherwise,...

Wholesalers Market trends

The wholesale sector is in serious decline the reasons for this are increased retail concentration and a more volatile fashion driven clothing market. Jaeger, perhaps anticipating these trends, withdrew in 1987, as did Jacques Vert in 1998. The large multiples and department store groups deal directly with their suppliers, often overseas companies, through central buying departments. They are therefore able to avoid using wholesalers and the associated costs. Indeed Marks and Spencer, the...

Glossary of Fashion Marketing Terms

Advertising is persuasive and or informative non-personal communications paid for by a clearly identifiable sponsor. Break-even analysis shows the relationship between fixed costs, variable or marginal costs, total costs, sales revenue and output or volume. Causal research is used to determine the relationship between variables, e.g. the relationship between advertising and repeat purchases. Concessions also known as shops-within-shops, can be defined as space leased by the host retailer to...

Marketing intermediaries

These are the main channels that help to get the goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. A detailed consideration of marketing intermediaries is given in Chapter Eight. Their roles can be many and varied. The main ones are retailers, agents, distributors, wholesalers, advertising agencies, market research agencies. The intermediary having the greatest influence on the clothing market is the retailer group. British clothes retailing is unique in that 70 of garment sales come from only 17...

Social stratification

All known human societies are stratified. Stratification refers to divisions of people according to their economic position in society, whether Higher managerial, administrative and professional Intermediate managerial, administrative and Supervisory, clerical or junior managerial, Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers Those at the lowest level of subsistence Includes most pensioners and the unemployed Source National Readership Survey (NRS Ltd), January to December 2006. Source National...

Case studies choosing the right celebrity

An own label retailer with a strong brand and market share was considering using celebrity endorsement for an advertising campaign. In order to establish which celebrities out of a large number would be suitable, they undertook some market research. The faces of the celebrities were shown to customers within the store environment and customers were asked to match the store personality to the celebrity personality. From this research there were five clear winners among the celebrities, and these...

Fashion marketing in practice

Within the fashion industry there is enormous variation in the size and structure of businesses serving the needs of customers. From a small business comprising a self-employed knitwear designer to major multinational corporations such as Liz Claiborne or Zara, diversity remains a key feature. With legislative changes and expansion of the EU, the gradual removal of trade barriers on a global scale and the growth of the Internet, the fashion industry is increasingly a global business. This...

The fashion product life cycle

Fashion Product Life Cycle

The concept of the product life cycle is based on the proposal that all products have a finite 'life cycle' that can be plotted over a given period using the biological analogy of growth, development and decline. It proposes that all products will go through four major stages, namely introduction into the marketplace, growth, maturity and decline. However, it has already been pointed out that the nature of products in the fashion industry varies according to the rate, extent and timescale of...

The planning cycle

The frequency of the planning cycle is probably greater in the fashion industry than any other because of its seasonal nature. Changing customer preferences ensures a perpetual drive for change. Volatility in terms of the seasonal variety of products offered and the speeds of change in fashions require skill, creativity, a propensity for risk taking and in-depth knowledge of end-user requirements in order for companies to plan effectively, and implement and control what is being offered in any...

How fashion marketing can help the fashion industry

The vast output and profits from the fashion industry come not from the designer collections seen on the catwalk but from items sold in high street stores. To put the impact of designers in perspective, one only has to note that the British Fashion Awards' Designer of the Year will often have annual earnings that amount to less than a day's sales for one large retailer in the Arcadia group. Even so, the designer collections are given extensive coverage in the fashion press where each season...

Classifying products with a fashion element

Although the categories above do apply to certain items of clothing in the fashion industry, they are slightly limited in use when one is trying to analyse buying motives and methods. It is probably more accurate therefore to classify tangible fashion products slightly differently, categorizing them as classics, fashions or fads. It is possible to use the term classic in several contexts. In terms of 'bundles of utilities', classics can usually be seen as the midpoint compromise of any style,...

An overview of the fashion marketing process

Fashion Marketing Process

Fashion marketing can be viewed as a process and Figure 1.4 illustrates that process. It also gives an indication of the structure of this book and how various parts link together. All firms operate within a wider commercial environment that influences their activities. Changes in value added tax may inhibit demand for certain garments whereas a fall in unemployment may stimulate demand for workwear. These two simple examples illustrate how changes in the marketing environment can have...

Size of the fashion market

Fashion Market Growth

All three levels of the market have shown some growth in domestic clothing demand in recent years. Growth of the total UK market for clothing has grown by over 16 from 1994 to 2004 and retail sales for 2006 are predicted to be nearly 50 billion Table 2.2 . UK imports now greatly exceed exports, having increased from 9.1 billion to 11.5 billion from 2001 to 2005 with the main traders being Hong Kong, China and Turkey see Table 2.1 . UK exports have remained steady at about 2.5 billion per annum...

Focus groups

The focus group also known as the group discussion is a form of qualitative research. The group usually consists of between 6 and 12 respondents who discuss products, services, attitudes or other aspects of the marketing process. The discussion is led by a skilled researcher called a group moderator, who guides the discussion, following a checklist of topics. The group usually meets in an informal setting, often someone's home, and the group members are paid a small sum for attending. These...

Contents

Part A Understanding Fashion Marketing 1 1 An Introduction to Fashion Marketing 3 1.3 What is fashion marketing 7 1.4 Fashion marketing in practice 7 1.5 How fashion marketing can help the 1.6 What fashion marketers do five examples 12 1.7 Ethical issues in fashion marketing 13 1.8 An overview of the fashion marketing process 15 1.9 Summary 16 Further reading 17 2 The Fashion Market and the Marketing Environment 18 2.2 The development of the fashion market 18 2.3 The fashion market size and...

Primary data collection methods

The researcher should not rely on the use of secondary data alone to answer the research problems. Not all secondary data are available to the researcher as some may be unavailable, for example in confidential reports, and other data may simply be too costly to acquire. The information that is available may be out-of-date or not sufficiently Figure 4.4 Approaches to primary data collection. Figure 4.4 Approaches to primary data collection. detailed to solve the research problem. Usually,...

List of Contributors

Sheila Atkinson, MSc, MBA, PGCEd, AMCIM. Her working experience includes buying and merchandising for the Burton Group pic and management of design education in further education. Sheila has extensive teaching experience in UK and Chinese Universities and has training and consultancy experience in fashion marketing. Sheila Atkinson produced Chapter Six with Mike Easey, on the design and marketing of fashion products. Mike Easey, BA Hons , DipM, MCIM, CertEd, is Director of Collaborative...

Choice of a sampling method

Types Sampling Methods

The two main types of sampling method - probability methods and non-probability methods - are shown in Figure 4.3. Figure 4.3 Types of sampling method. Figure 4.3 Types of sampling method. Statistically speaking, these are the best types of sampling method as each respondent has a known chance of being selected, so bias is minimized. They also allow the accuracy of the results to be estimated statistically. Sometimes probability sampling methods are referred to generically as 'random sampling'...

Geodemographics

Related to social class is a newer system of classifying consumers based upon where they live. A small number of proprietary systems exist based upon the census and categories of neighbourhoods. One such system is ACORN, which stands for A Classification Of h Residential Neighbourhoods and is owned by CACI Pinpoint is F another. These systems are derived from statistical analysis of census h variables to discover residential areas, usually census enumeration n districts comprising about 150...

Ethical issues in fashion marketing

The practice of fashion marketing is often criticized. These criticisms can be classified into two types, the micro-issues and the macro-issues. Micro-issues concern particular products and services where consumers may feel that they have not been fairly treated or that they have been misled. Most customers have bought clothing that has fallen below expectations by, for example, coming apart at the seams or shrinking in the wash. These problems may occur due to poor quality control or at worst...

Secondary sources

These provide the researcher with a starting point for data collection. It may be possible to solve the research problem either wholly or in part by using secondary data. This reduces the cost of a research project as secondary data are cheaper than collecting primary data. Secondary sources of information, are in the main, fairly accessible, although some sources may remain confidential and others may be too expensive to acquire. Secondary sources can be separated into the two types as shown...

Direct and indirect competition for fashion products

Marketers have to realize that with increased choice consumers have many different ways to spend their money. In the western world people rarely need to buy clothes out of pure necessity. A woman does not merely choose between one dress and another she also may choose between a new dress or hiring one, or making one or even to spend her money on something completely different like a handbag a or entertainment. A man may choose between one jacket and another, i or he may choose between a jacket...

The fashion marketing concept

There is another way to view the relationship between marketing and design, and this is termed the fashion marketing concept. That good fashion design only requires sufficient promotion to succeed is a view Figure 1.3 The fashion marketing concept. applicable to a very limited number of businesses - usually those producing expensive garments for an elite market. The alternative view of fashion design as a function of marketing research fails to recognize either that many people do not know what...

Consumer motivation

Maslows Hierarchy Needs For Fashion

Motivation is the inner force that drives and energizes consumers towards goals. Motivation incorporates need arousal, causing the drive that leads instrumental behaviour to reduce the drive. Consumer motivation is a complex matter to understand for many reasons. First, motives are inferred, a consumer motive cannot be seen or observed what is noted is behaviour and then an assumption about the underlying behaviour is made. An important distinction should be made between merely describing...