Nonpersonal communication channels are media that carry messages without personal contact or feedback. They include major media, atmospheres, and events. Major media include print media (newspapers, magazines, direct-mail), broadcast media (radio, television), display media (billboards, signs, posters), and online media (e-mail, company Web sites, online social and sharing networks). Atmospheres are designed environments that create or reinforce the buyer's leanings toward buying a product. Thus, lawyers' offices and banks are designed to communicate confidence and other qualities that might be valued by clients. Events are staged occurrences that communicate messages to target audiences. For example, public relations departments arrange press conferences, grand openings, shows and exhibits, public tours, and other events.
Nonpersonal communication affects buyers directly. In addition, using mass media often affects buyers indirectly by causing more personal communication. Communications first flow from television, magazines, and other mass media to opinion leaders and then from these opinion leaders to others. Thus, opinion leaders step between the mass media and their audiences and carry messages to people who are less exposed to media. This suggests that mass communicators should aim their messages directly at opinion leaders, letting them
Cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread information about a product or service to others in their communities.
Nonpersonal communication channels
Media that carry messages without personal contact or feedback, including major media, atmospheres, and events.
Personal communications channels: BzzAgent's army of 600,000 natural born buzzers creates word-of-mouth chatter for many of the world's best-known brands.
carry the message to others. Interestingly, marketers often use nonpersonal communications channels to replace or stimulate personal communications by embedding consumer endorsements or word-of-mouth testimonials in their ads and other promotions.
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