Reviews

ClickBank Superstar Review

ClickBank Superstar Review

Long Tail Pro Keyword Research Review

Long Tail Pro Keyword Research Review

The 12 Minute Affiliate System Review

The 12 Minute Affiliate System Review

How To Write Your Own Ebook In 7 Days

How To Write Your Own Ebook In 7 Days

The Secrets To Getting Anything For Free

The Secrets To Getting Anything For Free

Bing Bang Profits

Bing Bang Profits

Traffic Bots 10 Affiliate Tools

Traffic Bots 10 Affiliate Tools

Starting From Zero Audiobook By Fred Lam

Starting From Zero Audiobook By Fred Lam

Overnight Millionaire System Review

Overnight Millionaire System Review

Instant Event Fundraising System

Instant Event Fundraising System

Social Media Rockstar Review

Social Media Rockstar Review

Trafficzion Method Review

Trafficzion Method Review

Articles

Designing the Competitive Intelligence System

We have described the main types of information that company decision-makers need to know about their competitors. This information needs collecting, interpreting, distributing and using. Although the cost in money and time of gathering competitive intelligence is high, the cost of not gathering it is higher. Yet the company must.design its competitive intelligence system in a cost-effective way. The competitive intelligence system first identifies the vital types of competitive information and...

Distribution Channel Decisions

As consumers, we generally take for granted the role of marketing intermediaries or channel members. If we want a six-pack of soda or a box of detergent, we can buy it at a supermarket, a convenience store, or even a drugstore. Manufacturers understand the value and importance of these intermediaries. One of a marketer's most important marketing decisions involves the way it makes its products and services available for purchase. A firm can have an excellent product at a great price, but it...

The IDIC approach to relationship building

Idic Framework

Collecting information about customer needs through their lifetime, An alternative process for building customer relationships online has been suggested by Peppers and Rogers 1998 and Peppers et al. 1999 . They suggest the IDIC approach as a framework for customer relationship management and using the web effectively to form and build relationships Figure 6.8 . Examples of the application of IDIC include 1 Customer identification. This stresses the need to identify each customer on their first...

The Growth of Direct Marketing

Direct marketing has been around since the invention of the printing press in the 15th century. Ben Franklin was a very successful direct marketer in the early 1700s, and Warren Sears and Montgomery Ward you may have heard of these guys were using this medium in the 1880s. The major impetus behind the growth of direct marketing may have been the development and expansion of the U.S. Postal Service, which made catalogs available to both urban and rural dwellers. Catalogs revolutionized America's...

Sustainable Marketing Principles

Under the sustainable marketing concept, a company's marketing should support the best long-run performance of the marketing system. It should be guided by five sustainable marketing principles consumer-oriented marketing, customer-value marketing, innovative marketing, sense-of-mission marketing, and societal marketing. Consumer-oriented marketing means that the company should view and organize its marketing activities from the consumer's point of view. It should work hard to sense, serve, and...

Downward pressure on price

An efficient market where there are an infinite number of suppliers and buyers and complete price transparency. Price transparency is one reason for downward pressure on price. The Internet also tends to drive down prices since Internet-only retailers which do not have a physical presence do not have the overhead of operating stores and a retailer distribution network. This means that online companies can offer lower prices than offline rivals. This phenomenon is marked in the banking sector...

Responding to Competitors Price Changes

How should a firm respond to a price cut that is initiated by a competitor In markets characterized by high product homogeneity, the firm should search for ways to enhance its augmented product, but if it cannot find any, it will have to meet the price reduction. If the competitor raises its price in a homogeneous product market, the other firms might not match it, unless the price increase will benefit the industry as a whole. By not matching it, the leader will have to rescind the increase....

Problems in Media Planning

Unfortunately, the media strategy decision has not become a standardized task. A number of problems contribute to the difficulty of establishing the plan and reduce its effectiveness. These problems include insufficient information, inconsistent terminologies, time pressures, and difficulty measuring effectiveness. Insufficient Information While a great deal of information about markets and the media exists, media planners often require more than is available. Some data are just not measured,...

Classical Conditioning

Ads That Use Classical Conditioning

Figure 4-6 The classical conditioning process Figure 4-6 The classical conditioning process Two factors are important for learning to occur through the associative process. The first is contiguity, which means the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus must be close in time and space. In Pavlov's experiment, the dog learns to associate the ringing of the bell with food because of the contiguous presentation of the two stimuli. The other important principle is repetition, or the...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Outdoor Advertising

Outdoor advertising offers a number of advantages 1. Wide coverage of local markets. With proper placement, a broad base of exposure is possible in local markets, with both day and night presence. A 100 GRP showing the percentage of duplicated audience exposed to an outdoor poster daily could yield exposure to an equivalent of 100 percent of the marketplace daily, or 3,000 GRPs over a month. This level of coverage is likely to yield high levels of reach. 2. Frequency. Because purchase cycles...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Transit Advertising Advantages

Of using transit advertising include the following 1. Exposure. Long length of exposure to an ad is one major advantage of indoor forms. The average ride on mass transit is 45 minutes, allowing for plenty of exposure time.12 As with airline tickets, the audience is essentially a captive one, with nowhere else to go and nothing much to do. As a result, riders are likely to read the ads more than once. A second form of exposure transit advertising provides is the absolute number of people...

Types of Newspaper Advertising

Types Advertising Marketing

The ads appearing in newspapers can also be divided into different categories. The major types of newspaper advertising are display and classified. Other special types of ads and preprinted inserts also appear in newspapers. Exhibit 12-18 Newspaper inserts are used to reach target markets Exhibit 12-18 Newspaper inserts are used to reach target markets Display Advertising Display advertising is found throughout the newspaper and generally uses illustrations, headlines, white space, and other...

Defining Market Boundaries

The crux of any strategy formulation effort is market definition The problem of identifying competitive product-market boundaries pervades all levels of marketing decisions. Such strategic issues as the basic definition of a business, the assessment of opportunities presented by gaps in the market, the reaction to threats posed by competitive actions, and the decisions on major resource allocations are strongly influenced by the breadth or narrowness of the definition of competitive boundaries....

Monitoring Evaluation and Control

The final stage of the promotional planning process is monitoring, evaluating, and controlling the promotional program. It is important to determine how well the promotional program is meeting communications objectives and helping the firm accomplish its overall marketing goals and objectives. The promotional planner wants to know not only how well the promotional program is doing but also why. For example, problems with the advertising program may lie in the nature of the message or in a media...

Inherent Drama In Advertising

Inherent Drama

Exhibit 8-13 This Hallmark commercial uses an inherent-drama approach Finding the Inherent Drama Another approach to determining the major selling idea is finding the inherent drama or characteristic of the product that makes the consumer purchase it. The inherent drama approach expresses the advertising philosophy of Leo Burnett, founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago. Burnett said inherent-drama is often hard to find but it is always there, and once found it is the most interesting and...

Motivating Channel Members

The most successful firms view their channel members in the same way they view their end users. This means determining their intermediaries' needs and then tailoring the channel positioning to provide superior value to these intermediaries. To improve intermediaries' performance, the company should provide training, market research, and other capability-building programs. And the company must constantly reinforce that its intermediaries are partners in the joint effort to satisfy customers....

Advantages of Global Marketing and Advertising

A global marketing strategy and advertising program offer certain advantages to a company, including the following Economies of scale in production and distribution. Lower marketing and advertising costs as a result of reductions in planning and control. Lower advertising production costs. Abilities to exploit good ideas on a worldwide basis and introduce products quickly into various world markets. A consistent international brand and or company image. Simplification of coordination and...

Limitations of Newspapers

While newspapers have many advantages, like all media they also have disadvantages that media planners must consider. The limitations of newspapers include their reproduction problems, short life span, lack of selectivity, and clutter. Poor Reproduction One of the greatest limitations of newspapers as an advertising medium is their poor reproduction quality. The coarse paper stock used for newspapers, the absence of color, and the lack of time papers have available to achieve high-quality...

Defining the Problem and Research Objectives

Research Objectives And Problems

Marketing managers and researchers must work closely together to define the problem and agree on research objectives. The manager best understands the decision for which information is needed the researcher best understands marketing research and how to obtain Marketing research to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses. Marketing research to better describe marketing problems, situations, or markets, such as the market potential for a product or...

Public and Ethical Issues in Direct Marketing

Although direct marketers and their customers usually enjoy mutually rewarding relationships, a darker side occasionally emerges. Key public and ethical issues include Irritation Many people find the increasing number of hard-sell, direct-marketing solicitations by phone, television, and e-mail to be a nuisance. Unfairness Some direct marketers take advantage of impulsive or less sophisticated buyers. Television shopping channels and infomerciab extended-length, direct-response commercials that...

Segmenting International Markets

Few companies have either the resources or the will to operate in all, or even most, of the countries that dot the globe. Although some large companies, such as Coca-Cola or Sony, sell products in more than 200 countries, most international firms focus on a smaller set. Operating in many countries presents new challenges. Different countries, even those that are close together, can vary greatly in their economic, cultural, and political makeup. Thus, just as they do within their domestic...

Marketing Intermediaries

Mcdonald And Coke Signs

Marketing intermediaries Marketing intermediaries help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its prod- Firms that help the company to promote, ucts to final buyers. They include resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing serv-sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers. ces agencies, and financial intermediaries. Resellers are distribution channel firms that help the company find customers or make sales to them. These include wholesalers and retailers who buy and resell...

Meaning Of Corporate Appraisal

Broadly, corporate appraisal refers to an examination of the entire organization from different angles. It is a measurement of the readiness of the internal culture of the corporation to interact with the external environment. Marketing strategists are concerned with those aspects of the corporation that have a direct bearing on corporate-wide strategy because that must be referred in defining the business unit mission, the level at which marketing strategy is formulated. As shown in Exhibit...

Channel Behaviour and Organization

Distribution channels are more than simple collections of firms tied together by various flows. They are complex behavioural systems in which people and companies interact to accomplish individual, company and channel goals. Different forms of channel system exist. Some channel systems consist only of informal interactions among loosely organized firms, while others consist of formal interactions guided by strong organizational structures. Moreover, channel systems do not stand still - new...

Types of Corporate Advertising

Marketers seek attainment of corporate advertising's objectives by implementing Exhibit 17-15 Tyco uses image, advocacy, or cause-related advertising. Each form is designed to achieve spe- image advertising to avoid Image Advertising One form of corporate advertising is devoted to promoting the organization's overall image. Image advertising may accomplish a number of objectives, including creating goodwill both internally and externally, creating a position for the company, and generating...

Combining Personal Selling and Advertising

With specific market situations and communications objectives, the advantages of advertising make it more effective in the early stages of the response hierarchy for example, in creating awareness and interest , whereas personal selling is more likely to be used in the later stages for example, stimulating trial and getting the order . Thus, each may be more or less appropriate depending on the objectives sought. These elements can be combined in the promotional mix to compensate for each...

Systems Buying and Selling

Many business buyers prefer to buy a total solution to a problem from one seller. Called systems buying, this practice originated with government purchases of major weapons and , communications systems. The government would solicit bids from prime contractors, who assembled the package or system. The contractor who was awarded the contract would be responsible for bidding oui and assembling the system's subcomponents from see en itl-tier contractors. The prime contractor would thus provide a...

Interpersonal Factors

The buying centre usually includes many participants who influence each other. The business marketer often finds it difficult to determine what kinds of interpersonal factors and group dynamics enter into the buying process. As one writer notes 'Managers do not wear tags that say decision maker or unimportant person. The powerful are often invisible, at least to vendor representatives.'2 Nor docs the buying-centre participant with the highest rank always have the most influence. Participants...

Reasons Not to Measure Effectiveness

Ads With Wrong Percentages

Companies give a number of reasons for not measuring the effectiveness of advertising and promotions strategies 1. Cost. Perhaps the most commonly cited reason for not testing particularly among smaller firms is the expense. Good research can be expensive, in terms of both time and money. Many managers decide that time is critical and they must implement the program while the opportunity is available. Many believe the monies spent on research could be better spent on improved production of the...

Information Processing Model By William Mcguire

Classical Conditioning Advertising

Strong levels of interest should create desire to own or use the product. The action stage in the AIDA model involves getting the customer to make a purchase commitment and closing the sale. To the marketer, this is the most important stage in the selling process, but it can also be the most difficult. Companies train their sales reps in closing techniques to help them complete the selling process. Perhaps the best known of these response hierarchies is the model developed...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Marketing

Many of the advantages of direct marketing have already been presented. A review of these and some additions follow 1. Selective reach. Direct marketing lets the advertiser reach a large number of people and reduces or eliminates waste coverage. Intensive coverage may be obtained through broadcast advertising or through the mail. While not everyone drives on highways where there are billboards or pays attention to TV commercials, virtually everyone receives mail. A good list allows for minimal...

The physical and virtual value chain model

Virtual Value Chain Model

Value chain analysis helps to describe the various separate activities within a firm and to assess their performance when combined into a system in producing value for money solutions. According to the now-traditional model introduced by M. Porter 19 , there are five categories of primary activities and four categories of support activities. This model helps top managers to pinpoint the key activities of the firm and their interrelations with others to yield maximum value for customers in...

Standard Learning Hierarchy

Post Purchase Dissonance Examples

Consumer will do e.g., actual trial or purchase . In this hierarchy, the consumer is viewed as an active participant in the communication process who gathers information through active learning. Ray suggests the standard learning hierarchy is likely when the consumer is highly involved in the purchase process and there is much differentiation among competing brands. High-involvement purchase decisions such as those for industrial products and services and consumer durables like personal...

Strategic Business Units Sbus

Frequent reference has been made in this chapter to the business unit, a unit comprising one or more products having a common market base whose manager has complete responsibility for integrating all functions into a strategy against an identifiable competitor. Usually referred to as a strategic business unit SBU , business units have also been called strategy centers, strategic planning units, or independent business units. The philosophy behind the SBU concept has been described this way The...

The online revenue contribution

A key objective for Internet marketing is the online revenue contribution. This is a measure of the extent to which a company's online presence directly impacts the sales revenue of the organisation and can be used to influence resource allocation to the online channels. Online revenue contribution objectives can be specified for different types of products, customer segments and geographic markets. For example, in 1997, low-cost airline easyJet set an online contribution objective of 50 by the...

Bic Versus Gillette The Disposable Wars

ABOUT HALF OF ALL WESTERN men get up each morning, confront their stubble in the bathroom mirror and reach for a cheap disposable plastic razor. Schiek, Bic, Gillette, Wilkinson or whatever, most men think that one brand does as well as the next. Also, the razor makers seem always to have them on sale, so you can scoop up a dozen of them for next to nothing. The Gillette Company does not like this sort of thinking. Of course, women also use Gillette's razors, but Gillette worries about the...

The Need for Integrated Marketing Communications

Nike Integrated Marketing Communications

The shift toward a richer mix of media and communication approaches poses a problem for marketers. Consumers today are bombarded by commercial messages from a broad range of sources. But consumers don't distinguish between message sources the way marketers do. In the consumer's mind, messages from different media and promotional approaches all become part of a single message about the company. Conflicting messages from these different sources can result in confused company images, brand...

Characteristics of Services and Their Marketing Implications

Services have four major characteristics that greatly affect the design of marketing programs intangibility, inseparability, variability, and perishability. Services are intangible. Unlike physical products, they cannot be seen, tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before they are bought. The person who is getting a face lift cannot see the exact results before the purchase, just as the patient in the psychiatrist's office cannot know the exact outcome before treatment. To reduce uncertainty, buyers...

Advantages and Disadvantages of PR

Ipo Advantages And Disadvantages

Like the other program elements, public relations has both advantages and disadvantages. 1. Credibility. Because public relations communications are not perceived in the same light as advertising that is, the public does not realize the organization either directly or indirectly paid for them they tend to have more credibility. The fact that the media are not being compensated for providing the information may lead receivers to consider the news more truthful and credible. For example, an...

Source Attractiveness

A source characteristic frequently used by advertisers is attractiveness, which encompasses similarity, familiarity, and likability.17 Similarity is a supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message, while familiarity refers to knowledge of the source through exposure. Likability is an affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits. Even when the sources are not athletes or movie stars, consumers often admire their...

Case Study Easyjet Staying Ahead In The Pricing Game

EasyJet Staying Ahead in the Pricing Game In July 2008 the budget airline easyJet announced that it would have to cut flights over the coming winter period because it was expecting its pre-tax profits to drop by 45 percent due to higher fuel expenses. The company explained that oil prices had increased over the past few months and added more than 365 million to its fuel bills for the year. easyJet had been able to offset around half of the additional costs by increasing its revenue and by...

Number of Channel Levels

Sales Channels

Distribution channels can be described by the number of channel levels involved. Each layer of marketing intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer is a channel level. Because the producer and the final consumer both perform some work, they are part of every channel. The nitmher of intermediary levels indicates the length of a channel. Figure 21.2A shows several consumer distribution channels of different lengths. Channel 1. called...

OnDeck Versus Off Deck Web Advertising

The experience between on- and off-deck Web access is becoming very similar, but on- and off-deck mobile Web access are still fundamentally different. As discussed in previous chapters, on-deck Web access is Web access that the carrier provides though a branded portal, sometimes called a WAP deck. Marguerite Reardon, a staff writer at CNET News, explains the unique business model for on-deck Web access quite well Most mobile operators offer subscribers a menu or deck filled with the carriers'...

Choosing Public Relations Messages and Vehicles

The organization next selects its major public relations message themes and the PR tools it will use. Message themes should be guided by the organization's overall marketing and communications strategics. PR is an important part of the organization's overall integrated marketing communications programme, so the public relations messages should be carefully integrated with the organization's advertising, personal selling, direct marketing and other communications. In some cases the choice of PR...

Growth of Direct Marketing and Electronic Business

Sales produced through traditional direct-marketing channels (catalogs, direct mail, and telemarketing) have been growing rapidly. Whereas U.S. retail sales grow around 3 percent annually, catalog and direct-mail sales are growing about 7 percent annually. These sales include sales to consumers (53 percent), business-to-business sales (27 percent), and fundraising by charitable institutions (20 percent). Annual catalog and direct-mail sales are estimated at over 318 billion, with per capita...

Procter Gamble How Many is Too Many

Folger Butternut Coffee

PROCTER amp GAMBIA is THE market leader in the United States and the European detergent markets. In the United Ktat.es it markets nine brands of laundry detergent Tide, Cheer, Gain, Dasb, Bold 3, Dreft, Ivory Snow, Oxydol and Era . The cultural and competitive diversity in Europe means that even more brands, such as Ariel, are used to serve that market. Why so many Besides its many detergents Procter amp Gamble sells eight brands of hand soap Zest, Coast, Ivory, Safeguard. Camay, Oil of Ulay,...

Zopa launches a new lending model

It might be thought that innovation in business models was left behind in the dot-com era, but still fledgling businesses are launching new online services. Zopa is an interesting example launched in March 2005. Zopa is an online service which enables borrowers and lenders to bypass the big high street banks. It is an example of a consumer-to-consumer exchange intermediary. It illustrates the challenges and opportunities of launching a new business online, especially a business with a new...

Pieta Luxury Chocolates

PETER ABEL, THE YOUNG MANAGING director of his family's firm, was pleased with the way he had revitalized the firm after he took over in 1989. Since formed in 1923, Pieta had sold its luxury Belgian chocolates through its own small shops. It had a high reputation within the trade and many devoted customers. lr was the country's largest luxury chocolate manufacturer, but until Peter took over, the company had stagnated. In his opinion, Pieta should he more like other leading family firms such as...

Expanding the Total Market

The leading firm normally gains the most when the total market expands. If people take more pictures, then as the market leader, Kodak stands to gain the most. If Kodak can persuade more people to take pictures, or to take pictures on more occasions, or to take more pictures on each occasion, it will benefit greatly. Generally, the market leader should look for new users, new uses and more usage ofits products. NEW USERS. Every product class can attract buyers who are still unaware of the...

Creative Tactics for Television

As consumers, we see so many TV commercials that it's easy to take for granted the time, effort, and money that go into making them. Creating and producing commercials that break through the clutter on TV and communicate effectively is a detailed, expensive process. On a cost-per-minute basis, commercials are the most expensive productions seen on television. TV is a unique and powerful advertising medium because it contains the elements of sight, sound, and motion, which can be combined to...

International Marketing Manners When in Rome

Consolidated Amalgamation, Inc., thinks it's time that the rest of the world enjoyed the same fine products it has offered American consumers for two generations. It dispatches vice-president Harry E. Slicksmile to Europe to explore the territory. Mr Slicksmile stops first in London, where he makes short work of some bankers - he rings them up on the phone. He bandies Parisians with similar ease after securing a table at La Tour d'Argent, he greets his luncheon guest, the director of an...

Undifferentiated Marketing

Broad Undifferentiated Marketing

Using an undifferentiated marketing strategy, a firm might decide to ignore market segment differences and go after the whole market with one offer. This can Three alternative market-coverage strategic be because there are weak segment differences or through the belief that the product's appeal transcends segments. The offer will focus on what is common in the needs of consumers rather than on what is different. The company designs a product and a marketing programme that appeal to the largest...

Combining Personal Selling and Public Relations

The job descriptions presented earlier demonstrate that personal selling involves much more than just selling products and or services. The personal selling agent is often the firm's best source of public relations. In their day-to-day duties, salespeople represent the firm and its products. Their personalities, servicing of the account, cooperation, and empathy not only influence sales potential but also reflect on the organizations they represent. The salesperson may also be used directly in...

External value chains and value networks

Reduced time to market and increased customer responsiveness can be achieved through reviewing the efficiency of internal processes and how information systems are deployed. However, these goals are also achieved through consideration of how partners can be involved to outsource some processes that have traditionally been considered to be part of the internal value chain of a company. Porter's original work considered both the internal value chain and the external value chain or network. Since...

Stage 3 Tools and techniques for collecting metrics and summarising results

Techniques to collect metrics include the collection of site-visitor activity data such as that collected from site log-files, the collection of metrics about outcomes such as online sales or e-mail enquiries and traditional marketing research techniques such as questionnaires and focus groups which collect information on the customer's experience on the web site. We start by describing methods for collecting site-visitor activity data and then review more traditional techniques of market...

Stage 2 Defining the performance metrics framework

Measurement for assessing the effectiveness of Internet marketing can be thought of as answering these questions 1 Are corporate objectives identified in the Internet marketing strategy being met 2 Are marketing objectives defined in the Internet marketing strategy and plan achieved 3 Are marketing communications objectives identified in the Internet marketing plan achieved How efficient are the different promotional techniques used to attract visitors to a site These measures can also be...

Intermediary analysis

Chapter 2 highlighted the importance of web-based intermediaries such as portals in driving traffic to an organisation's web site. Situation analysis will also involve identifying relevant intermediaries for a particular marketplace and look at how the organisation and its competitors are using the intermediaries to build traffic and provide services. For example, an e-tailer needs to assess which comparison services such as Kelkoo www.kelkoo.com and Pricerunner www.pricerunner.com it and its...

Is a separate Internet marketing plan needed

Should an organisation have a separate e-marketing plan defining its strategic approach to the Internet, either for the organisation as a whole or for specific markets or brands Consider Figure 4.2. You will be familiar with the hierarchy of plans for an organisation, from a corporate or business plan which informs a marketing plan which in turn informs a communications plan and campaign briefs for different markets or brands. But where does the e-marketing plan fit Does the organisation need...

Campaign response mechanics

Ethanol Production Process Corn Oil

Digital media have increased the choice of response mechanisms. We will look at online and offline response mechanisms that need to be considered for both online and offline campaign media. Reviewing response mechanisms is important since too narrow may limit response, but too broad and unfocused may not give the right types of response -marketers need to emphasise the response types most favourable to the overall success of the campaign. Policies for response mechanism across campaigns should...

Setting the Total Promotion Budget and

Setting Total Promotion Budget And Mix

We have looked at the steps in planning and sending communications to a target audience. But how does the company decide on the total promotion budget and its division among the major promotional tools to create the promotion mix We now look at these questions. One of the hardest marketing decisions facing a company is how much to spend on promotion. John Wanamaker, an American department store magnate, once said 'J know that half of my advertising is wasted, but I don't know which half. I...

Consumer Franchise Building versus Nonfranchise Building Promotions

Marketing Versus Non Marketing

Sales promotion activities that communicate distinctive brand attributes and contribute to the development and reinforcement of brand identity are consumer franchisebuilding (CFB) promotions.24 Consumer sales promotion efforts cannot make consumers loyal to a brand that is of little value or does not provide them with a specific benefit. But they can make consumers aware of a brand and, by communicating its specific features and benefits, contribute to the development of a favorable brand...

How to Cash in with High Ticket Affiliate Programs

You get paid for promoting other people's products. The commission can be for a sale or a lead, depending on the program. The percentages vary between a few percent and 70 or 75 and sometimes even more. Most affiliates focus on promoting things where the possible commission ranges from a few cents to maybe 10 or 20 dollars per conversion. While it is often true that cheaper products sell better than more expensive products, it is not true that it is more...

Figure 3.1 Actors In The Microenvironment

Apple Consumer Behavior

Discuss bow companies cars react to the marketing environment. V 7 77-7 '7 . v -V' . .VvY i'U -.S--- The actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management's ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers. The actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics. The larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment demographic,...

The Promise and Challenges of Online Marketing

Online marketing offers great promise for the future. Its most ardent supporters envision a time when the Internet and electronic commerce will replace magazines, newspapers and even stores as sources for information and buying. Yet despite all the hype and promise, online marketing may be years away from realizing its full potential. And even then, it is unlikely to fulfil such sweeping predictions. Instead, eventually, online marketing will become another important tactical tool, much like...

Defining the Channel Objectives and Constraints

Channel objectives should be stated in terms of the desired service level of target customers. Usually, a company can identify several segments wanting different levels of channel service. The company should decide which segments Co serve and the best channels to use in each ease. In each segment, the company wants to minimize the total channel cost of supplying customers, while also meeting their service requirements. The company's channel objectives are also influenced by the nature of its...

The Search for the Major Selling Idea

An important part of creative strategy is determining the central theme that will become the major selling idea of the ad campaign. As A. Jerome Jeweler states in his book Creative Strategy in Advertising The major selling idea should emerge as the strongest singular thing you can say about your product or service. This should be the claim with the broadest and most meaningful appeal to your target audience. Once you determine this message, be certain you can live with it be sure it stands...

Combining Personal Selling and Sales Promotion

The program elements of sales promotion and personal selling also support each other. For example, many of the sales promotions targeted to resellers are presented by the sales force, who will ultimately be responsible for removing or replacing them as well. While trade sales promotions are designed to support the reseller and are often targeted to the ultimate consumer, many other promotional tools are designed to assist the sales staff. Flip charts, leave-behinds, and specialty ads may be...

Key concepts of relationship marketing

'Consistent application of up to date knowledge of individual customers to product and service design which is communicated interactively in order to develop a continuous and long term relationship which is mutually beneficial' (Cram, 1994 , One-to-many communication between a company and potential customers, with limited tailoring of the message, The approach to Internet marketing function is based on customer behaviour within the target audience and then seeks to fulfil the needs and wants of...

The characteristics of interactive marketing communications

Traditional techniques such as print and TV advertising used to generate web site traffic. The customer's purchase decision is influenced by a range of media such as print, TV and Internet. Communications are broadcast from an advertiser to consumers of the message who are passive recipients. The consumer is proactive in selection of the message through actively seeking out a web site. Through understanding the key interactive communications characteristics enabled through digital media we can...

What Impact Will Rfid Tags Have On Each Of The Major Logistical Functions

Describe the major types of vertical marketing systems and provide an example of each. 5. Discuss the complexities international marketers face when designing channels in other countries. 6. List and briefly describe the major logistics functions. Provide an example of a decision a logistics manager would make for each major function. 1. ExerWise, a new company marketing a high-end ab toner exercise machine, is considering direct marketing versus selling through Strongs, a national sporting...

Marketdilution Strategy

In many situations, a company may find reducing a part of its business strategically more useful than expanding it. The market-dilution strategy works out well when the overall benefit that a company derives from a market, either currently or potentially, is less than it could achieve elsewhere. Unsatisfactory profit performance, desire for concentration in fewer markets, lack of top management knowledge of the market, negative synergy vis- -vis other markets that the company serves, and lack...

Trends in Wholesaling

Today's wholesalers face considerable challenges. The industry remains vulnerable to one of the most enduring trends of the last decade fierce resistance to price increases and the winnowing out of suppliers who are not adding value based on cost and quality. Progressive wholesalers constantly watch for better ways to meet the changing needs of their suppliers and target customers. They recognize that, in the long run, their only reason for existence comes from adding value by increasing the...

How Companies Integrate Personal Selling into the IMC Program

For many companies, personal selling has been the primary focus for promoting their goods and services. Other IMC program elements have assumed more of a support role and, in many instances, have not been used effectively by the marketing managers or the sales force. For many companies, all of this is changing as reflected in the following examples Xerox testing ads and sales promotions. Barbara Basney,director of marketing communications at Xerox's Office Printing Business, is responsible for...

Set Tentative Marketing Communication Budget

Monitor, evaluate, and control integrated marketing communications program Monitor, evaluate, and control integrated marketing communications program Examine overall marketing plan and objectives Role of advertising and promotion Competitive analysis Assess environmental influences Analysis of Promotional Program Situation organization Firm's ability to implement promotional program Agency evaluation and selection Review of previous program results External analysis Consumer behavior analysis...

Traditional Response Hierarchy Models

A number of models have been developed to depict the stages a consumer may pass through in moving from a state of not being aware of a company, product, or brand to actual purchase behavior. Figure 5-3 shows four of the best-known response hierarchy models. While these response models may appear similar, they were developed for different reasons. The AIDA model was developed to represent the stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal-selling process.11 This model depicts...

Glossary of Fashion Marketing Terms

Advertising is persuasive and or informative non-personal communications paid for by a clearly identifiable sponsor. Break-even analysis shows the relationship between fixed costs, variable or marginal costs, total costs, sales revenue and output or volume. Causal research is used to determine the relationship between variables, e.g. the relationship between advertising and repeat purchases. Concessions also known as shops-within-shops, can be defined as space leased by the host retailer to...

Ziba Product Research Process

How do companies design new products Quite often, they get someone else to do it for them. That's where design firms such as ZIBA come in. ZIBA is one of a new breed of consultancies whose sole purpose is to help corporations better understand customer needs and turn that understanding in to groundbreaking new products. The foundation for ZIBA's product development process is market research. That research seeks to understand the brand itself, the competition, and market trends. But most...

How Many Truly Global Brands Are There

In his classic 1983 book The Marketing Imagination, Harvard marketing professor Theodore Levitt argued that the world was becoming a Itejctihitf Lhe Biilmn tJolliir Atari Itejctihitf Lhe Biilmn tJolliir Atari common marketplace where people have the same basic needs, wants, desires, and tastes no matter where they live. Levitt called on marketers to develop global marketing strategies and true global brands that could be sold under one name around the globe. Many multinational companies heeded...

Wal Mart organizational culture

The legacy of Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton is a distinct organizational culture the 'Wal-Mart Way' . In this culture, managers practice a form of servant leadership and every employee is known as an 'associate'. Everyone is on a first name basis. Associates are empowered to adapt to local circumstances and are encouraged to try out their own ideas. The culture emphasizes experimentation and trial. Sam Walton's competitive spirit has also been instilled in the associates where there is great...

Analyzing Customers Desired Service Output Levels

Fn designing the marketing channel. the marketer must understand the service output levels desired bv targel customers. Channels produce five service outputs , I.ol size - The number of units the channel permits a typical customer in purchase on Orte occasion, fn buying ears for its fleet. Hertz prefers a channel from which it can buy a large lot si .c a household wants a channel that permits buying a lot Size of one. 2. Wailing and delivery time - I he average time Customers of that channel...

The fashion product life cycle

Fashion Product Life Cycle

The concept of the product life cycle is based on the proposal that all products have a finite 'life cycle' that can be plotted over a given period using the biological analogy of growth, development and decline. It proposes that all products will go through four major stages, namely introduction into the marketplace, growth, maturity and decline. However, it has already been pointed out that the nature of products in the fashion industry varies according to the rate, extent and timescale of...

Types of Trade Oriented Promotions

Manufacturers use a variety of trade promotion tools as inducements for wholesalers and retailers. Next we examine some of the most often used types of trade promotions and some factors marketers must consider in using them. These promotions include contests and incentives, trade allowances, displays and point-of-purchase materials, sales training programs, trade shows, and co-op advertising. Contests and Incentives Manufacturers may develop contests or special incentive programs to stimulate...

Sonic Marketing Plan Chapter Assignments Answers

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The fashion marketing concept

There is another way to view the relationship between marketing and design, and this is termed the fashion marketing concept. That good fashion design only requires sufficient promotion to succeed is a view Figure 1.3 The fashion marketing concept. applicable to a very limited number of businesses - usually those producing expensive garments for an elite market. The alternative view of fashion design as a function of marketing research fails to recognize either that many people do not know what...

Ethical issues in fashion marketing

The practice of fashion marketing is often criticized. These criticisms can be classified into two types, the micro-issues and the macro-issues. Micro-issues concern particular products and services where consumers may feel that they have not been fairly treated or that they have been misled. Most customers have bought clothing that has fallen below expectations by, for example, coming apart at the seams or shrinking in the wash. These problems may occur due to poor quality control or at worst...

The References Of International Marketing

Aaby, N.E. and Slater, S.F. 1989 , Management influences on export performance a review of the empirical literature 1978-88, International Marketing Review, 6 4 , pp. 7-20. Aharoni, Y. 1966 , The Foreign Investment Decision Process, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, MA. Barrett, N.I. and Wilkinson, I.F. 1986 , Internationalization behaviour management characteristics of Australian manufacturing firms by level of international development, in Tumbull, P.W....

Effective Marketing or Deception and Invasion of Privacy

The direct-marketing industry has taken its share of criticism from consumers and government agencies for a long time. Critics of direct marketing cite junk mail, telemarketing, and the selling of names contained in a database as just some of the reasons for their discontent. While it is a very effective medium for marketers, the mention of direct marketing conjures up negative connotations to many consumers. Now, it appears that the Internet may be taking a similar track. Consider this...

Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption

The characteristics of the new product affect its rate of adoption. Some products catch on almost overnight Virtual Pets , whereas others take a long time to gain acceptance Digital TV . Five characteristics are especially important in influencing an innovation's rate of adoption. For example, consider the characteristics of the MiniDisc in relation to the rate of adoption Relative advantage the degree to which the innovation appears superior to existing products. The greater the perceived...

Discussing applying the concepts

Discuss how retailers and wholesalers add value to the marketing system. Explain why marketers are embracing the concept of shopper marketing. 2. Different types of customers and products require different amounts of service. Discuss the different levels of retailer service and give one example of each. 3. Discuss the different organizational approaches for retailers and provide an example of each. 4. What is the wheel-of-retailing concept Does it apply to online retailing 5. What is retail...

Promotional Program Situation Analysis

After the overall marketing plan is reviewed, the next step in developing a promotional plan is to conduct the situation analysis. In the IMC program, the situation analysis focuses on the factors that influence or are relevant to the development of a promotional strategy. Like the overall marketing situation analysis, the promotional program situation analysis includes both an internal and an external analysis. Internal Analysis The internal analysis assesses relevant areas involving the...

Click Bank Success Story 5 Miles Baker

Could you give us a brief background of yourself and your websites Sure, I started probably about seven years ago, I started trying to do anything I could to make money online and I started messing around with eBay and I started purchasing different books and different e-books and started learning basic web design, and it just kind of took off from there, and I started to sell different types of software online and was successful with that. I sold how-to e-books. And to make a long story short,...

Commission Soup and Credit Soup are part of the same affiliate network that specializes in offering financial related

One of the beefs I have with some stand-alone programs, as well as with some affiliate networks, is their requirement that affiliates be U.S. citizens or operate sites that promote products only to other U.S. citizens. I've always wondered why it matters where a site is based if I can direct U.S. citizens to their site. Fortunately, companies like Commission Soup understand that Internet marketing is a worldwide activity. Commission Soup is a network that sells credit card offers exclusively to...

Productscope Strategy

The product-scope strategy deals with the perspective of the product mix of a company i.e., the number of product lines and items in each line that the company may offer . The product-scope strategy is determined by making reference to the business unit mission. Presumably, the mission defines what sort of business it is going to be, which helps in selecting the products and services that are to become a part of the product mix. The product-scope strategy must be finalized after a careful...

Celebrities Sell Out But Only in Japan

Many American celebrities make huge sums of money endorsing products and serving as advertising spokes-people. Other big stars won't appear in ads because they don't want fans to think they've sold out. But many celebrities who resist the temptation to cash in on their fame in the United States are only too happy to appear in ads in foreign countries. And nowhere are ads starring American celebrities more prevalent than in Japan. Even the rich and famous have trouble saying no to Japanese...

Online Customer Experience Pyramid

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The combination of rational and emotional factors of using a company's online services that influences customers' perceptions of a brand online. Developing the capability to create and maintain an effective online presence through a web site is a key part of Internet marketing. 'Effective' means that the web site and related communications must deliver relevance to its audience, whether this be through news content for a portal, product and service information for a business-to-business site or...

The Growth of Sales Promotion

While sales promotion has been part of the marketing process for a long time, its role and importance in a company's integrated marketing communications program have increased dramatically over the past decade. Consumer sales promotion-related spending increased from 56 billion in 1991 to nearly 100 billion in 2001.4 Marketers also spend an estimated 150 billion each year on promotions targeted at retailers and wholesalers. Consumer packaged goods firms continue to be the core users of sales...

George Preston Marshall

Marketing genius is found in those who take fledgling enterprises and through innovation and customer involvement build hugely successful products. George Preston Marshall was such a marketer. In 1937, he purchased the old Boston Redskins professional football team and moved the franchise to Washington, DC, renaming it the Washington Redskins. In those days, professional football was more of a curiosity than serious sport. Baseball was the national pastime. Football was something to do on a...

Market research objectives

Causal Research

A clothing manufacturer, Corallo, wants to know why its sales of jeans are falling at a rate of 10 a year. They have asked Abacus Data Research (ADR), a market research consultancy, to find out. Choose a phrase from the box to replace each phrase in italics in the letter. Write the number after the phrase. causal research study consumer research in-house research market research brief pilot questionnaire questionnaire secondary research South Dakota Blvd., Englewood Cliffs, 07632 New Jersey Tel...

Communications Pyramid

Communications Pyramid Belch

Figure 7-2 Effect of advertising on consumers movement from awareness to action various steps in the Lavidge and Steiner hierarchy of effects model as the consumer moves from awareness to purchase, along with examples of types of promotion or advertising relevant to each step. Communications Effects Pyramid Advertising and promotion perform communications tasks in the same way that a pyramid is built, by first accomplishing lower-level objectives such as awareness and knowledge or...

Purchasing Newspaper Space

Advertisers are faced with a number of options and pricing structures when purchasing newspaper space. The cost of advertising space depends not only on the newspaper's circulation but also on factors such as premium charges for color or special sections as well as discounts available. The purchase process and the rates paid for newspaper space differ for general and local advertisers. General versus Local Rates Newspapers have different rate structures for general or national advertisers and...